2016 LARASA World Leisure Congress List of Speakers

Prof Adriana E. Estrada

Prof Adriana E. Estrada

Mexico

TITLE : Social Tourism and Senior Citizens: its educational contribution Author : Dr Adriana E. Estrada Affiliation : Associate Professor, Leisure Management Studies, Universidad Mexicana del Noreste, México Biography : Leisure Management Studies, International Leisure Studies, WLRA International Centre of Excellence in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands PhD, Leisure and Human Development, Universidad de Deusto, Spain. In 1993 she managed the Local Secretariat for the organization of the 3rd World Leisure Congress in Jaipur, India Abstract Social tourism has been an active field in tourism literature for the last 50 years.  Since its foundation, the International Social Tourism Organization has been the leading actor to conduct research in this area.  The Manila Declaration (WTO) defines social tourism as “to make tourist leisure accessible to the majority, including youth, families and elderly people, by providing an exceptional economic opportunity”.  The Family Holiday Association (UK) understands social tourism as “the inclusion of groups in society who are economically weak or otherwise disadvantaged in tourism participation”. Research has been conducted to understand the participation of senior citizens in social tourism.  The methodology used in this study was a theoretical review of literature on social tourism and leisure,  qualitative data collection using the individual interview  and the focus group techniques.  A variety  of indicators available to measure leisure and tourism participation was used during this study.  One of these indicators is education. The research took place in Monterrey, México.  The focus group method was used with six groups of seniors citizens selected, two of them corresponding to private enterprises, another two groups were society associations or NGOs and two more groups were pertaining to the public / government sector.  The interviews were applied to the travel coordinators of each group selected.  Evidence was found that social tourists perceive acquiring knowledge and cultural development when participating in a tourism experience.  Findings reflect the position taken by senior citizens when travelling with cohorts, different from the perspective of travelling with a different age group.  The educational contribution of their trips was one of the most important features identified during discussions with the focus groups.  On the other hand, the interviewees did not emphasize the promotion or design of educational activities during the tours organized by themselves.  They expressed the perception that senior citizens’ approach to travel is merely for socialization and relaxation.  Further research will discover the great opportunity available when studying groups of elderly people or senior citizens participating in leisure and tourism.
Ms Aggie Weighill

Ms Aggie Weighill

Canada

TITLE : Outdoor family leisure: A strengths-based case study of Scarborough, Ontario, Canada AUTHOR : Ms Liane O’Keefe PRESENTED BY : Ms Aggie Weighill         AFFILIATION :    Vancouver Island University, Canada   ABSTRACT   Spending time outdoors has been linked to physical, emotional, and psychological benefits (Louv, 2005; McCurdy et al, 2010; Wells & Evans, 2003). Despite benefits to wellbeing, empirical research has shown that outdoor leisure experiences are declining globally (Pergams & Zaradic, 2008) and children are particularly vulnerable to this nature disconnection (Louv, 2005). Within a Western context, declining outdoor leisure has been linked to physical and psychological illness in children, including obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Gray, 2011; McCurdy, Winterbottom, Mehta, & Roberts, 2010). The family has been described as an important influence on children’s outdoor leisure experiences and the development of the leisure preferences (Beets, Cardinal, & Alderman, 2010). When children are exposed to outdoor activities, they are likely to develop a preference for spending time outdoors and pass this preference on to their children in the future (Cheng & Monroe, 2012). However, in the leisure studies literature, research has predominantly focused on constraints to outdoor leisure participation. Using an exploratory case study methodology, this study was developed to investigate what enables families to participate in outdoor family leisure and, thus, influence the outdoor leisure practices of their children. Drawing on a strengths-based perspective and Raymore’s (2002) theory of leisure facilitators, the findings broadened understandings of the perceptions, experiences, and facilitators of outdoor family leisure in Ward 43 of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Notably, the outdoor context of family leisure did not change the purposive nature of family leisure and participation was facilitated by a variety of context-specific influences. The findings of this study, while exploratory in nature, suggested that it might be worthwhile for researchers and practitioners to make use of strengths-based perspective to investigate the context-specific leisure facilitators that influence outdoor family leisure practices, preferences and participation.
Ms Allana Joyce Soares Gomes Scopel

Ms Allana Joyce Soares Gomes Scopel

Brazil

TITLE : The women’s skate session AUTHOR : Ms Allana Joyce Soares Gomes Scopel CO-AUTHOR : Dr Ana Cláudia Porfírio Couto       AFFILIATION :    UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS, Brazil   ABSTRACT             The research now presented is inserted in the universe of the studies that relate the problem of leisure with the issues involving the urban space. It is aimed to analyze particular modes of appropriation observed in women’s skate sessions on the skate park of the Youth Park, located in São Bernardo do Campo city, in São Paulo state, Brazil. The present study followed the assumptions of the qualitative research, ethnographic inspired, based on methodological paths of interpretive anthropology. Being combined methodological resources of documental analysis, participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The documentary analysis was made through magazines and webpages specialized in skateboarding. The observations of the daily living of skaters during exclusive female session in Youth Park were held during the period from August to November 2013. The interviews were made at the end of this period, with two skaters: a professional vertical skateboarder, 39 years old; and a amateur street skateboarder, 21 years old. For the interpretation of the data it was used the method of content analysis. The Women’s Session is a special time in the schedule of the Youth Park. Consisting of a span of time that was specially created to women who were starting in practice of skateboarding. The results showed particular modes of space ownership: the occupation of that space/time is configured as a form of resistance and legitimation of its category, the practice of female skateboarding in this occupation becomes effectively visible. This appropriation is also marked by solidarity. In Women’s Sessions they can share their practices among equals: They are girls, young people and women who are known for going through the same difficulties of space conquest and recognition as skaters. In addition, the spatial appropriation processes of these women skaters are formed by elements quite complex, involving their spatial trajectory throughout history and the search for legitimacy of women’s skateboarding. The constant search for conquest of Women’ Session and greater visibility of women’s skateboarding contributed to the production of identity, throughout history, in the daily living of that equipment, allowing the production of places, the places of skateboarders and female skateboard in the Youth Park.
Alexandre F Silva Teixeira

Alexandre F Silva Teixeira

Brazil

TITLE : City, leisure and children: Curumim Program at SESC/Santana (2005-2014). Author : Mr  Alexandre Francisco Silva Teixeira Affiliation : Educador infantojuvenil, SESC, Brazil Biography : Master in Social History from the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo PUC – SP – (2015), Specialist in History, Culture and Society PUC – SP (2012) and a BA in Theatre Arts from the State University of Londrina PR (2004). Member of the following study groups: NEHSC / Social History Studies Center of the city – PUC / SP, OTIUM / Multidisciplinary Studies Leisure and Free Time – UNIFOR and Study Group on Contemporary Leisure and Recreation – Center for Research and Training SESC / SP. Arts Educator infant juvenil in Social Commerce of the State of São Paulo SESC Service / SP since 2006. ABSTRACT This research aims to explore leisure in urban daily life on the North Side of São Paulo. It refers to the Cultural and Sports Centre implemented by Serviço Social do Comércio do Estado de São Paulo (SESC/SP) named SESC/Santana. In order to achieve results about SESC/SP’s strategy for socio-educational leisure, project “Curumim Program” was chosen, especially considering that this project has been lead since the inauguration of SESC/Santana. The choice of this theme is based on the fact that leisure in São Paulo is a subject scarcely studied academically. The working method adopted was based on the analysis of images, reports, videos, interviews and specialized bibliography about leisure produced by SESC/SP. Such historical sources clarified that the strategy used by the SESC reveals an unique way to organize time/space for leisure.
Prof Theresa Lorenzo

Prof Theresa Lorenzo

South Africa

TITLE : Equalizing opportunities for youth with disabilities to participate in free time activities : enabling wellbeing AUTHOR :  Prof Theresa Lorenzo AFFILIATION : University of Cape Town, South Africa  Biography : Professor, Head of Division and Programme Convenor for Disability Studies Doctoral Programme, Department of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town. PG Diploma Higher Education Studies (UCT) 2014. PhD in Public Health, UCT (2005) Thesis title: We don’t see ourselves as different: A web of possibilities for disabled women. MSc in Community Disability Studies. University of London (1993) Thesis title: Evaluation of Community Based Rehabilitation programmes in South Africa. Higher Diploma for Educators of Adults, University of Witwatersrand (1993). BSc (Occupational Therapy), University of Witwatersrand (1985). Expertise and teaching area – Community based rehabilitation(CBR), Disability Studies – Community based development and project monitoring, Disability and Citizenship research interests. Disability and development in rural and impoverished communities. Disabled youth and sustainable livelihoods. Participatory action research on disabled women’s development. Evaluation of CBR programmes in African countries. ABSTRACT Youth with disabilities have been marginalized from  mainstream programs including  sport and recreation. The UN  Convention  on the Rights of Persons with Disability and the Community Based Rehabilitation Guidelines recognize their rights to full and equal access and participation. This paper presents results of a study of youth with and without disabilites in rural areas of Northern and Eastern Cape. Types of free time activities were identified through participatory methods. Barriers to free time activities were Identified as largely environmental factors. Strategies to address these needs are inter-sectoral and require the political will and co-operation of key stakeholders, including schools and higher education institutions, local government, local clubs and organizations to implement programmes. Community based rehabilitation and development workers enable these networks for  inclusion.

Andrea Ednie

Andrea Ednie

USA

Title : Commitment to Physical Activity in Outdoor Settings Author : Dr Andrea Ednie, PhD Affiliation : Assistant Professor, Health, Human Performance, Recreation & Coaching, University of Wisconsin – Whitewater, United States of America Biography : Dr. Ednie is Assistant Professor of Health, Human Performance & Recreation at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. Her research combines outdoor recreation experiences with exercise motivations. She has a PhD in Parks, Recreation & Tourism from the University of Maine and has led sea kayak expeditions over 15 years. ABSTRACT According to the US Center for Disease Control (2015) under half of US adults 18 years and older met the American College of Sports Medicine’s physical activity guidelines in 2013. In addition to helping to protect against many chronic diseases (ACSM, 2012), regular exercise provides a multitude of physical and psychological benefits. Outdoor exercise, in particular, brings unique benefits. Research has found that participants report more health benefits and positive emotions associated with outdoor as compared to indoor exercise (Loureiro & Veloso, 2014, Williams et al., 2011) and will more likely maintain an exercise program if they enjoy it and experience positive affect during their workouts. The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise motivations, patterns and demographics of a sample of highly motivated outdoor exercise enthusiasts in order to gain insight on what drives their commitment, and to identify strategies that may encourage those who exercise outdoors little to do more. A sample of cross-country skiers was surveyed at a State Forest trailhead in Wisconsin, US, during winter 2015 (n=191). Cluster analysis was used to group participants according to the proportion of their physical activity done outdoors across the seasons, and three clusters emerged including year-round enthusiasts, fair-weather participants, and participants who predominantly exercise indoors. Exercise patterns were analyzed based on whether they met or exceeded ACSM (ACSM & AHA, 2007) recommended physical activity patterns. Principle components factor analysis was conducted to reduce place attachment and exercise confidence survey measures, and one-way analyses of variance tests were used to evaluate the relationships between outdoor exercise across the seasons, exercise patterns, motivations, place attachment, and demographics. The sample was highly committed to physical activity in general. Over 70% regularly meet the ACSM physical activity recommendations. Fifty-seven percent were in the year-round group (over 75% exercise done outdoors throughout all 4 seasons), and 38% fit into the fair weather group (over 75% exercise done outdoors in the summer and fall). Examination of the outdoor exercise clusters and physical activity groups identified several patterns. For example, participants in the fair-weather and year round groups scored significantly higher on measures of exercise confidence than the indoor group. Also, the fair-weather and year-round clusters rated skill development and social reasons for using the trails higher, and they found exercise to be more enjoyable, social, revitalizing, and recreational as compared to the indoor group. Significantly more participants in the year-round group were skate-skiers as compared to the other groups, which would suggest that they seek more technical activities. The study findings support previous research about the benefits of, and provide information that can be used for promoting, outdoor physical activity. For example, activities of various intensities were common, even though they are a highly active sample. Also, making outdoor activities enjoyable and social, and providing the opportunity for individuals to learn new skills is of paramount importance for increasing participation in outdoor exercise. Outdoor recreation agencies should strategically offer fun, community-oriented events in combination with more competitive programs.
Annie Karobia

Annie Karobia

Kenya

TITLE : Use of Leisure and Recreation facilities in three star hotels AUTHOR : Ms Annie Karobia                      CO-AUTHOR : Jane Kamau AFFILIATION : Kenyatta University, Kenya Biography : High school principal holding a Masters degree in hospitality and tourism management Abstract Leisure is the free or unobligated time during which one is not working or performing other life sustaining functions (Leitner, 2004). On the other hand Roberts (2001) defines recreation as the voluntary activities one chooses to undertake during leisure time for personal fulfillment. According to Tolkilsden (1999), these activities are carried out because of satisfaction, pleasure or creative enrichment derived, or because one perceives certain personal or social values to be gained from them.  Leisure and recreation facilities can either be a building, service or piece of equipment provided for the purpose of recreation, and in this study provided in three star hotels in Nairobi County Kenya. Heinemann (2004) states that the traveling public became more health and fitness conscious and many properties especially business oriented urban properties and destination resorts responded to this trend by adding a health club or spa facilities. According to Stipank (2002) developers realized the competitive advantage of more expansive fitness facilities and added exercise equipment.  A hotel is a commercial establishment where people enjoy accommodation, meals and other guest services. Among the services are leisure and recreation especially in three star rated hotels and above as required by East African Community (EAC) Criteria for classification of Hotels and Restaurants. This study sought to find out the types of leisure and recreation facilities in three star hotels, in Nairobi County, Kenya and the extent to which they are used. A cross sectional descriptive research design was used to gather information from the respondents in three star hotels. General Managers, front office managers, recreation managers, recreation attendants and or instructors and facility users who were present at the time of data collection were the target population. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used as the research instruments. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that three star hotels in Nairobi County are offering a variety of leisure and recreation facilities that include swimming pool, health fitness centre, steam bath, golf course, sauna, squash court and tennis court. The availability of these facilities attracts more clients as well as registered members. The study further found out that utilization of LRF was very high in most of the hotels and 60% of the hotel clientele made use of the facilities. High usage of a facility implies more revenue for the hotel especially where the facilities are paid for separately. From the findings it is imperative that hotels should adopt the use of leisure and recreation facilities as a platform to advertise their destination resorts due to their ability to attract more clients therefore giving a competitive advantage to the hotel and consequently influencing the revenue generated in the hotels.
Arend Hardorff

Arend Hardorff

Netherlands

TITLE : UN Charter on Leisure; cultural heritage or more relevant than ever? AUTHOR : Dr Arend Hardorff AFFILIATION : NHTV Breda,  Netherlands  Workshop and Panel Discussion During the Mobile 2014 conference, the first debate was hosted between scholars and students from the WLO Centres of Excellence (CoE’s). In this second edition representatives from all the CoE’s (Canada, USA, The Netherlands and Spain) and invitees from South-Africa will be challenged to reflect on the UN Charter of Human Rights statement of “right to rest and leisure”, and other UN charters that talk about the right to participate in sports and culture. All panel members will be asked to react to the following questions (and more) from their own cultural and academic perspectives:

  • These UN statements date back to the 1950’s. Are they still relevant or are we talking about ‘outdated stuff’? Do they still relate to the way people spend leisure time and money nowadays? And if we would be invited to define them right now, how would they sound like? And would digital and/or technical developments play a role?
  • Which developments do you see in your own country that influence the way of thinking about the right to leisure and how that is put into practice? Which factors or arguments play a dominant role in the way leisure policies are implemented in your society? Do national governments still play that dominant role in the way leisure is made accessible to all groups in society, or is the real power in the hands of global organizations like Facebook, Disney, FIFA etc.?

In which way does all of this play an explicit or implicit role in your curricula? Do you pay attention to the history of leisure and the forces that influenced that? Are these UN ideals connected to your program and the underlying values?

Atara Sivan

Atara Sivan

Hong Kong

TITLE : Leisure Education in schools: Challenges, choices and consequences AUTHOR : Atara Sivan AFFILIATION :  Faculty of Social Sciences & Professor, Department of Education Studies, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong Biography : Prof. Atara Sivan is Associate Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences and Professor in the Department of Education Studies of Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. She is the President and Senior Fellow of the World Leisure Academy, the Editor-in-Chief of the World Leisure Journal and the founder and Chairperson of World Leisure Organization – Hong Kong Chapter. Her research interests are in the areas of youth development and leisure education, curriculum, pedagogy and teacher education. She has contributed internationally to the development of leisure education by being the scientific adviser to the development of the first comprehensive leisure education curricula for schools and through her publications and conference presentations. Among her co-authored books are: Leisure Education Towards the 21st Century; Leisure Education, Community Development and Populations with Special Needs; and, Leisure Education in School Systems. She is also the recipient of numerous international awards including the International Award for Excellence in Teaching, Learning and Technology and the Hillel Ruskin Memorial Scholar Lecture Award. ABSTRACT The paper examines the concept and practice of leisure education with special reference to the role of educational settings. It will explore the underlying dimensions of leisure education as manifested in educators’ and students’ views and in school practices. Despite the growing advocacy for implementing leisure education in schools, its application lags behind its global expectations. In line with the congress theme, the presentation will examine the challenges surrounding the role of schools as leisure educators, portray the choices in educating for leisure within school systems and discuss the consequences of undertaking this important role. References will be made to global educational trends including increased competition, rising expectations and growing emphasis on measurable learning outcomes. Examples will be provided from recent studies undertaken by the author on school students and teachers in Hong Kong eliciting their views and exploring the different ways in which schools educate for leisure. Implications will be drawn for ways to utilize schools’ potential to educate for leisure while employing a comprehensive and collaborative approach.
Bernard Kitheka

Bernard Kitheka

USA

TITLE : Play and Recreation in a Developing Country: Assessing Utility of Bujumbura’s Jardin Public Gardens, Burundi AUTHOR : Dr Bernard Kitheka                    CO-AUTHORS : Carmen Nibigira, Fran McGuire, John Mgonja    AFFILIATION : Clemson University, South Carolina, United States Biography : Bernard Kitheka, a native Kenyan, recently graduated with a doctorate degree in Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management at Clemson University, South Carolina, United States. In 2010, Bernard obtained a Master of Environmental Science (environmental sustainability) degree from Miami University, OH, and a Bachelor of Science degree in Wildlife Management from Moi University, Kenya in 1997. Previously Bernard worked for various international and national not-for-profit organizations in areas of community development, sustainable livelihoods, conservation outreach, program management, and youth development. Bernard’s main research interests include the intersection between tourism and environmental sustainability, urban planning, sustainable livelihoods and human dimensions of recreation. Other research interests include recreation and play programming in developing countries and the role of play spaces in democratic transitions and peace building in post-conflict countries ABSTRACT Play and recreation are increasingly becoming integral in contemporary society. Play and recreation have long been regarded as a way to improve the physical, emotional and cognitive health of individuals. They have also been widely recognized for their capacity to help children develop leadership, communication and social skills. However, limited research has been done on the role of play and recreation spaces in enhancing democracy and peace building in post-conflict countries such as Burundi. Burundi, like many countries emerging from protracted conflicts and civil war, faces the challenge of providing quality physical spaces where people from different cultures can freely recreate, interact and express themselves. One such space is the Jardin Public Gardens, locally referred to as the “lung of Bujumbura.” The facility, spanning over six hectares, is the largest open, green space in the country’s capital of nearly one million residents. The Public Gardens was set aside by the local government but is currently managed through a public-private partnership. The garden provides invaluable socio-cultural, economic and ecological functions for the city. However, the survival of this facility is threatened because of pressure for commercial development and management uncertainties. The purpose of this research was to assess the level of access and values Bujumbura residents attach to the gardens as well as the level of satisfaction with the current state and management of the gardens. The overarching goals was to investigate the extent to which the Public Gardens, the only public outdoor space in the city, could be used to enhance social integration in society that has been historically divided along hostile ethnic and political lines. A total of 435 randomly selected participants were surveyed. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 21) using descriptive and inferential statistics. Nvivo data analysis softer was used to build word frequencies. Finding show a highly valued, easily accessed recreation facility irrespective of age, class and distance. It is expected that the findings will be used to enhance efforts to protect the Public Gardens and, set aside other public open spaces and parks, and also support play and recreation programming in Burundi.
Mr Brendan Riggin

Mr Brendan Riggin

Canada

TITLE : A CSR Health Initiative: More Than Just Bucks and Pucks AUTHOR : Mr Brendan  Riggin CO AUTHOR :  Karen Danylchuk, Dawn Gill & Robert Petrella AFFILIATION : Western University, London, Canada         ABSTRACT  Global healthcare spending has dramatically increased for the treatment of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Deloitte, 2015). The prevention of such diseases can be improved with modified lifestyle behaviour, such as increased physical activity, which can also help to reduce the upward trend in obesity rates (worldobesity.org, 2012). In Canada, for example, more than half (58%) of annual healthcare spending is for the treatment of chronic diseases (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011). In particular, males tend to suffer from poorer health when compared to females with 40% of Canadian men overweight and 27% classified as obese (Statistics Canada, 2014). Additionally, sports fans, who tend to be male, weigh more, eat higher fat foods, and have worse general health habits than their non-sports fan counterparts (Health.com, 2008). Previous research has shown that weight-loss programs that are based in a sporting context, where participants had a strong sense of affiliation, showed lower dropout rates and higher reported rates of satisfaction among participants than traditional weight-loss programs (Robertson, 2014).  In an attempt to utilize this knowledge, researchers in the UK developed Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a weight-loss and healthy living program developed specifically for male fans and delivered through their local Scottish professional football clubs. In Canada, hockey is a core leisure activity and cultural component with two-thirds of adults following the sport as fans, and 80% identifying hockey as a key part of what it means to be Canadian (Environics, 2012). Therefore, in collaboration with the researchers involved in FFIT, Hockey Fans in Training (HockeyFIT) was created, where 40 male fans from two Major Junior hockey organizations (n = 80) participated in 12 weekly physical activity, healthy eating and health promotion sessions led by trained instructors and hosted in local hockey club facilities. In addition to improving participants’ health, this program offered the two hockey organizations the opportunity to demonstrate their corporate social responsibility (CSR) and commitment to the health of their community. The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of this HockeyFIT health initiative through the lens of CSR. The research was guided using Inoue and Kent’s (2013) framework, which includes two dimensions–the unit of analysis and the timing of impact. Objective health measurements and physical activity levels of fans were taken at baseline, with follow-up assessments at 12-weeks and 12-months to determine the immediate and long-term impact of the program. Additionally, focus groups and interviews were conducted with key stakeholders to further explore the fans’ experiences. Results from this research can provide evidence for a health initiative’s ability to combat chronic disease and reduce annual healthcare spending. Fans of each organization benefit on an individual level through improved lifestyle behaviour with a snowball effect to friends and family. Both hockey organizations involved will benefit from the various advantages associated with CSR. Finally, this research will provide other sport organizations a type of health-oriented initiative they can offer if management chooses to operate in a socially responsible manner.
Dr Cari Autry

Dr Cari Autry

USA

TITLE : Recreation’s role in the lives of children who are homeless          AUTHOR : Dr Cari E. Autry            AFFILIATION : Florida International University,  United States of America  Biography : Cari Autry is a Clinical Assistant Professor in Recreational Therapy in the Department of Leadership and Professional Studies. She received her Ph.D. in Health and Human Performance with a concentration in Therapeutic Recreation and a minor in Special Education from the University of Florida. She has been an Assistant Professor at the University of Florida and at Arizona State University prior to moving to Miami. She has presented at state, national, and international conferences related to therapeutic recreation, youth development, homelessness, community development, and social capital. Cari has published in journals such as the Therapeutic Recreation Journal, World Leisure Journal, Leisure Sciences, Sociology of Sport Journal, and Leisure/Loisir. ABSTRACT Children deserve to be in a place of hope where the growth and potential are not postponed. They deserve to be exposed to and explore the ‘power of play” (Institute for Children and Poverty, 2004). However, when basic needs are the major focus within a shelter, what perceptions exist as to the role recreation can play in the lives of children who are homeless? The purpose of the session is to present the background and findings of a research study conducted to help address the meanings, attitudes and behaviors surrounding children and families who are homeless regarding the provision of necessary services and policies related to recreation and quality of life. Through an ecological framework, the research focused on an interpretative approach to studying these issues. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with human service providers working with children and families who are homeless, including a crisis counselor, case worker, child care provider, recreation programmer, volunteer coordinator, employment coordinator, and administrator, in order to gain a sense of existing perceptions and needs related to recreation services’ role in youth development in the homeless population. This approach “allows for those people being studied to ascribe their own words and meanings to situations” (Henderson, 1991, p. 27). “It takes a community to end family homelessness” (Stern, 2002). What role does recreation play within this community? Three themes emerged from the data analysis: meaning of recreation/use of time, constraints to recreation and benefits of recreation to children and families who are homeless. Theoretical implications from this study include play, family systems, the cycle of homelessness in families, and the social reconstruction of traditional models of family homelessness. Practical implications include the importance of recreation services meeting multiple developmental needs for different age groups of children and youth who are homeless, facilitating the development of self-determination through choices and decision making, and building hope and trust with families and children who are homeless.
Cedric Wang Zhe

Cedric Wang Zhe

Hong Kong

TITLE : The Role of Tourism in Vicissitude of Livelihood: A Case of Indigenous Community in China’s National Park AUTHOR : Mr Cedric, Zhe Wang                CO –AUTHOR :  Prof Lawal M Marafa AFFILIATION : The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong BIOGRAPHY:  Wang  Zhe, Cedric is a PhD student at the Department of Geography and Resource Management, the Chinese University of Hong Kong. His research interests include space and time in tourism study, tourists’ needs, tourism planning as well as national parks. He has earlier engaged in tourism planning and enterprise strategic planning practice in China as a senior project manager. ABSTRACT Sustainable Livelihood (SL) has been discussed in the last few decades. In recent literature, the relationship between tourism and SL was only discussed following the works of Tao and Wall (2009) in which they identified “tourism as a sustainable livelihood strategy”. With the growth of tourism, it is therefore clear that there could be significant impacts of tourism on the livelihood of communities particularly rural communities. This however, could be complex and can vary among areas and different tourism development stages. Subsequently, researchers focused attention on the relationship between tourism, livelihood and biodiversity; the influence of resource management in livelihood transformation, etc. With the establishment of national parks in China, it is important to investigate to what extent tourism impacts on the vicissitudes of livelihood on communities either within or at the periphery of national parks. This paper reports on a study of an indigenous minority community “Luorong” in Shangrila, China following the introduction of tourism at the national park. Fieldwork, indepth interviews as well as questionnaire surveys were conducted. The results show that tourism development has significant impacts on the vicissitude of livelihood in Luorong Village, while national park governance played a crucial role in the processes to meet the multiple objectives of national park as well as to enhance community livelihood. Consequently, the study recommends a dynamic governance approach within tourism development in order to improve livelihood of the community in protected areas when tourism is introduced.
Chantal Christopher

Chantal Christopher

South Africa

TITLE : The Long fingers of “Coloured “identity: fiddling , tweaking and moulding current recreational engagement AUTHOR : Ms Chantal Christopher          AFFILIATION : University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa Biography : Chantal currently facilitates learning at UKZN, engaging with honours students in community settings. An OT humanist, she works across fields, focusing her research on addressing deeply rooted often systemic issues that drive human occupations. Her evolving PhD focuses on recreational engagement amongst marginalised women. ABSTRACT Coloured women on the margin of society, from a forgotten piece of group area relocation explored their recreational engagement utilising various qualitative inquiry methods such as photo voice, narratives, generational stories and interviews. The women with the researcher built their personal histories into a strong ribbon of occupational identity nuanced by their self- proclaimed coloured identity. Kielhofner (2002) advanced the occupational therapy scholarship by linking occupation and identity, coining the term occupational identity. This he defined  as “a composite sense of which one is and wishes to become as an occupational being generated from one’s history of occupational participation. One’s volition, habituation, and experience as a lived body are all integrated into occupational identity.” The personal histories of the women support Kielhofner’s definition, however continues to nuance it through cultural practices, inherited patterns and occupations as well as imposed occupations.  This is a very real South African story of our muddied history of humanity, created by apartheid that divided people into races and then left one of the races, the “coloured” people caught in a binary between the oppressed and the oppressor. With a cultural identity at odds with itself and in flux these women demonstrate through their unveiling of their occupational engagement (or lack thereof) the continued injustices of apartheid. This presentation part of a Phd will explore the concept of “coloured identity” and the impact of this on women’s engagement with recreation in terms of occupational identity, occupational choice, participation in, and the seeking out or creating opportunities to engage in recreational opportunities within Mariannridge (a peri-urban area west of Durban).
Dr Cristianne Gomes

Dr Cristianne Gomes

Brazil

TITLE : Leisure, Woman and Cinema AUTHOR : Dr Christianne Luce Gomes                                   AFFILIATION :  Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) and Researcher at CNPG, Brazil. Biography : Christianne Gomes holds a PhD in Education (2003), a Master Degree in Sports Science (1995), a Diploma in Leisure (1993) and a Bachelor’s Degree in Physical Education (1992). She was also a Post-doctoral Fellow at National University of Cuyo, Argentina (2012). ABSTRACT Since the cinema was popularized and massiveness by the cultural industry, it has become a leisure experience appreciated by people of different age and social classes, in various parts of the world. Among other forms of art / entertainment, the cinema includes social relations between people, which are mediated by images. In this process values are being assimilated and realities constituted in different perspectives and contexts – which involve often representations of women. Considering that cinematographic narratives produce senses and meanings about women, this research has been guided by the following questions: How women are represented in Latin American films produced in the XXI century? How, when and why women gains visibility on the plot of a movie? What are the cultural contexts present, conflicts and tensions that make it up? How does the female subjectivity is depicted? As their relationship with the male is established? Considering this problem and assuming as a theoretical gender studies, the general objective of the research is to understand the representations of women in Latin American contemporary cinema. The methodology of this qualitative research was developed, at first, by a bibliographic study on leisure, woman and cinema, complemented and enriched by film analysis. They were selected to analyze the Latin American films in theaters during the period defined in the research schedule, choosing those with potential to undertake analyzes of the representations of women in contemporary Latin American cinema. Despite its relevance in the current context, this theme is emerging in Latin American leisure studies. As Baecque highlights (2011, p.32): “[…] the cinema requires that speak about it. The words that name it, the reports that narrate it and the discussions that make relive – all models its real existence. The screen of its projection, the first and only one that counts, is mental: it occupies the head of those who watch the movies to then dream about them, share their emotions, evoke their memory, practice their discussion, their writing.”
Dr Cristina Ortega-Nuere

Dr Cristina Ortega-Nuere

Spain

TITLE : Young, participation, creation and governance of their leisure spaces AUTHOR     Dr Cristina    Ortega-Nuere CO AUTHOR  : Dr Ana Vinals       Biography :Cristina Ortega Nuere is a Doctor in Leisure and Human Development –awarded with the extraordinary Prize for  the Best PH-D Thesis in all disciplines Ignacio Ellacuría, with a Master degree in Leisure Management, and specialized in Cultural Management, she graduated from the Faculty of Arts and Philosophy from the University of Deusto and completed her studies in London, Middlesex and at Westminster University. At present she is the Chief Academic Officer of the World Leisure Association WL. She is also a Member of the Basque Council of Culture of the Basque Government. Her area of specialization is leisure, cultural policies, leisure, wellbeing and human development.  As a researcher she has participated in more than 30 research projects in the leisure and cultural field. She has been the principal researcher of the project entitled RESORTES, about leisure, spaces, governance and youth, financed by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, National Plan of Research and Innovation. In the international scope, she is taking part in ADESTE, Developing European Audiences: towards an observatory at EU level, financed by Culture Programme. In the same framework, she has been the leader of the project Monitors of Culture that aims to reflect on cultural observatories in the future in Europe. She has also taken part in different Life Long Learning programmes, such as Artists Moving and Learning that analyses the impact of international mobility experiences of artists, and CREA.M, Creative blended mentoring for cultural managers. She has also taken part in other projects such as the Status of ‘European Capital of Culture’ – Long-Term Effects, financed by the European Commission. She usually participates as a speaker in international scientific conferences worldwide Abstract This article is part of the current network society. The Digital Age has transformed connected all the way to experience the entertainment of the general public and young people in particular. The aim of this paper is to present the main results of the R + D + i coordinator character entitled “From educational time to social time: the participation of young people in the creation and governance of their leisure spaces factor personal development”. Research that aims to develop one of the aspects contained in the coordinated project “”From educational time to social time: the daily construction of the youth condition in a network society”” and whose scope of analysis is focused on identifying the repertoire more significant leisure practices among peers, in Spanish population aged 16 to 18 years. A population that is in a transition period of great socio vital importance, the person has to reorganize his life choosing between continuing post-compulsory secondary education or inserted early in the labour market. The purpose of the study was to identify how the different areas of youth leisure peer condition socialization processes and learning of the Spanish population between 16-18 years. Thus, it has proposed an indicative classification: 1) if the entertainment takes place in physical or virtual spaces; 2) if the processes of creation are self-generated or institutional and 3) whether management processes are self-managed or run by external responsible. The study was conducted between 2012 and 2015 and has been based on a methodological design that brings together various tools that legitimize the (qualitative and quantitative) mixed nature of the methodology used: questionnaire, focus groups and interviews. The ultimate aim of the project was to test how the intensity with which young people are involved in the design, generation and consolidation of spaces of a valuable leisure favourably contribute to the development of their subjectivity, especially when it comes to periods transitional vital. In short, we present research that adds value to the socio returns leisure in shaping harmonious social times of Spanish young people between 16 and 18 years.
Prof Charl Roux

Prof Charl Roux

South Africa

TITLE : Students’ experiences of an adventure programme and value education AUTHOR : Prof Charl J Roux        AFFICILIATION : University of Johannesburg, South Africa                            Biography : Professor Charl J. Roux is the Vice Head of Sport and Movement Studies at the University of Johannesburg(UJ), and holds D. Litt. et Phil in Human Movement Science. He is a co-founder of the only Olympic Studies centre in Africa, established at UJ. His field of interest includes Physical Education; Olympic Studies sport and recreation for people with disabilities. ABSTRACT Prejudices such as racism, sexism and homophobia can be harmful towards the happiness of students at higher education institutions (HEI). This can culminate into a poor academic performance (Bhana, 2014). Active participation in sport and sport related physical activities such as recreation and adventure activities can be successful in reducing distance between participating people and groups (Roux, 2002; O’Connell & Cuthbertson, 2009). The fostering of a positive interpersonal relationship and tolerance towards others within their own group and especially towards other ethnic groups could have impact on the life, personal development and academic achievements of these participants.The main aim of this study is to determine if this 2-day adventure programme with selected initiatives and cultural activities induced with Olympic and Paralympic values would have a positive influence on the participants’ perception towards group cohesion and dynamics in a multicultural setting. A methodology (Roux, 2000) to conduct an intervention programme with the objective of changing attitudes and perceptions towards the ‘self’ and ‘others’ hence towards improving group cohesion and team functioning with evidence of a significant positive changes (p<0.01) in the attitudes was utilized. The participants are second year students (N=120) are well represented of the multicultural nature of the University of Johannesburg.   Results show a significant improvement of their experience towards group cohesion and their experience of this adventure programme. Involvement in adventure programmes can re-affirm team cohesion to develop a support system amongst the participants that could lead to improved academic results. Such an intervention programme should be conducted with an informed approach to address the challenge for maximising the necessary social outcomes beyond the boundaries of these activities.
Prof Dorothy Schmalz

Prof Dorothy Schmalz

USA

TITLE : Playing with food : Implications for Leisure and Health AUTHOR : Dr Dorothy Schmalz   CO-AUTHORS : Ellen M. Granberg, Kirby W. Player         AFFILIATION : Clemson University, United States of America  Biography : Dorothy Schmalz is an Associate Professor in the Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management at Clemson University. She received her Ph.D. in Leisure Studies with a concentration in Sport Psychology from Penn State University. After graduation, she worked as a Reserach Associate in the Children’s Obesity Lab at Penn State. Dr. Schmalz’s research focuses primarily on the effects of stigma on behavior, with particular attention to obesity and cancer related stigmas on health and quality of life. ABSTRACT Overweight and obesity is one of the greatest global health challenges of the 21st Century. Despite worldwide attention to the issue, few intervention programs have identified successful methods that encourage significant and sustainable weight loss. Traditionally, weight loss programs focus on the individual, and beyond recognizing that support systems are important, few programs provide the resources and scaffolding to fully engage a significant other in the weight loss process, be it a partner, family member, or friend. The World Health Organization (WHO, 2015) has identified that healthy eating and physical activity are the two most effective strategies for weight loss. Both eating and exercise are activities that couples often engage in together, and mutually value. It is well-established in the leisure field that shared and mutually valued activities can make relationships stronger (Black & Lobo, 2008). Furthermore, when one feels their partner mutually values participation in an activity, it can contribute to greater commitment to and engagement in an activity (Powers, Koestner, & Gorin, 2008). By not providing partners with the same education, counseling, and resources that are provided to the person targeted for weight loss, programs overlook a vital piece of the puzzle that could lead to success. The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of a partner mutually valuing eating and/or exercise as activities in weight loss success and maintenance.  In this preliminary study, we used qualitative methods to explore eating and exercise were mutually valued recreation activities for couples where one or both members lost a significant amount of weight. Interviewees were recruited using a snowball method, in which the primary researcher solicited names from local weight loss groups. Delimiting criteria were that interviewees be 18 years or older and have lost 100 or more pounds. Six interviews with men (2) and women (4) were completed. Interviews were conducted by the primary researcher in a semi-private environment, and guided by a prepared list of questions. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Members of the research team independently coded the data using keywords and concepts, and then compared codes assigned to responses for inter-rater reliability (Creswell, 2007).  The factors which contribute to overweight and obesity are many and multifaceted, making the problem of identifying a predictably successful weight loss strategy difficult. Research has established that support systems are an important for success, but few intervention programs sufficiently incorporate significant others in the education and counselling associated with weight loss. Including a partner in the process, and having them share in valuing healthy behaviors could be an important element to weight loss success that has thus far been overlooked. This and future research exploring how healthy diet and exercise behaviors could act as shared recreation activities could initiate a change in perspective of how to incorporate significant others in the weight loss process, and lead to greater weight loss success, maintenance, and overall quality of life.
Dr Dorothy Fox

Dr Dorothy Fox

United Kingdom

TITLE : The relationship between visiting a garden and enthusiasm for gardening. AUTHOR : Dr Dorothy Fox            AFFILIATION :    Bournemouth University, England          Biography : Dr Dorothy Fox is a Senior Lecturer in Events and Leisure Management at Bournemouth University, England. Her PhD thesis sought to understand participation in garden visiting, within a conceptual framework of affordance theory. She has also published studies on wine tourism and the perception of nature in China and England. ABSTRACT Understanding the preferences of visitors to leisure attractions is important for operators, to encourage first and repeat visitation. Leisure preferences have been accounted for over the past few decades by a variety of variables, including socio-demographic variables, such as gender, age and race; and by personality and internal attributes. Miller (1991) concluded that individuals choose leisure activities that are congruent with their personality and it could be hypothesised therefore that there would be a relationship between the different but associated leisure activities chosen by people.  However to date, little attention has been paid in this area. This study uses a survey of residents in southern England (n = 397) to identify the preferences for visiting and revisiting a garden that is open to the public, (i.e. a visitor attraction). The GB Day Visitor Survey (Visit England, 2013) showed that there were 30 million day visits to gardens in England in 2012 and 89.5% of the respondents in this study had visited a garden as an adult, demonstrating the popularity of this leisure activity. Similarly, 90% of the population have access to a domestic garden (outdoor yard) or similar space (Future Foundation 2012).  Logistic regression was used first to identify which factors best predict the likelihood that the respondents would report that they had a visited a garden in the year of the study. It was then implemented to identify whether they sometimes like to revisit a garden. Three predictor (independent) variables were assessed in each case. First, whether the respondent has access to a garden space; secondly, their level of enthusiasm for gardening as a hobby and thirdly, how enjoyable they thought a visit to a garden attraction would be. The results show that both models were statistically significant, (chi square = 43.460, p = 0.000 with df = 6 and chi square = 36.488, p = 0.000 with df = 6). In respect of visiting a garden, the respondents’ enthusiasm for amateur gardening and their views on how enjoyable a visit to a garden would be, made a statistically significant contribution to the model.  The strongest predictor of making a visit was perhaps unsurprisingly, those that thought a visit would be very enjoyable. This had an odds ratio of 2.01 indicating that these respondents were twice as likely to visit as those who thought a visit would be only quite enjoyable or quite or very unenjoyable. This figure rose to six times more likely in respect of revisiting. The differences in types of gardener were much smaller, but more unexpected, in that respondents who quite liked gardening were slightly more likely to visit a garden than the enthusiastic gardeners (Exp (B) =0.126 and 0.106 respectively). In light of these results, further analysis was undertaken to establish the characteristics of the respondents based on the two key variables. Finally their preferences for garden features, what they liked to learn about and why they might revisit were examined. Recommendations for the management and marketing of garden attractions are then made.
Prof Douglas Kleiber

Prof Douglas Kleiber

USA

TITLE : An idiographic turn for understanding leisure in retirement and widowhood AUTHOR :  Dr Douglas Kleiber   Biography :  Douglas A. Kleiber (A.B, Psychology, Cornell; Ph.D, Educational Psychology, U.Texas) has addressed the developmental psychology of leisure in over 100 journal articles, chapters and books, including Leisure Experience and Human Development (Basic, 1999) and A Social Psychology of Leisure (Venture, 2012). He is a past president of the Academy of Leisure Sciences and a recent inductee into the World Leisure Academy. ABSTRACT Despite living a relatively charmed life myself, I have nevertheless given the bulk of my research attention in recent years to the subject of negative life events.  I have broadened the subject somewhat to include events that are not traumatic and may even be quite positive, such as retirement.  The significance of leisure in adjusting to transitions of all kinds, and particularly in coping with loss in later life, has defined my work agenda.  To that end I have avoided what I have critically called “me-search” when students launch their research based on personal experience, despite my own aging and the fact that qualitative research has been my preferred paradigm in the work on widowhood and retirement. But for the same reason we expect subjectivity statements of our qualitatively-oriented doctoral students and increasingly embrace the idiographic for how it might redress the lack of attention to minority experience in nomothetic approaches, I decided to interrogate my own experience of retirement and widowhood.  In considering my own experience of each with respect to leisure in particular, I compare mine with cases and general patterns of disruption, engagement and disengagement, diversion, continuity and stabilization through return to activity, selective optimization with compensation, innovation, inspiration, and personal transformation as discussed in the literature.  Upon reflection and comparison, then, my experience of retirement is anticipatory at this point as it is a year or two away, but my lack of preparedness in terms of a repertoire of leisure activities to turn to does not auger well for successful retirement and aging.  Despite being in relatively good health declining physical reserves make it unlikely that I will continue my sporting activities to the degree I would like, and I am reluctant to innovate as I am impatient with my own incompetence. Thus, I am a bit concerned about substituting for enjoyable work activities.  I will likely disengage from interests and activities that were more exclusively academic, but some of that work can still be selected for optimizing leisure in a way that provides a sense of continuity and stability.  Widowhood has already presented the disruption to leisure experience for me that has been the case with other populations.  I have come to understand the companionship associated with marriage in its loss and the inability to continue to enjoy some of the things done together. I have distracted myself from grief by watching a lot of television and bar-hopping bars in search of companionship and affection, patterns that are temporarily palliative at best.  If leisure offers true solace and peace and a means of transcendence and transformation, that has yet to occur for me, though family relationships are promising; when I turn to play with my grandchildren and socialize with my two children, I find a sense of purpose, personal renewal and inspiration.  In general then, while the optimization of life through leisure is still a bit elusive for me, I feel my experience is nevertheless consistent with the many others who have demonstrated its significance as a resource in later life.
Dr Chung Shing Chan

Dr Chung Shing Chan

Hong Kong

TITLE : The potential of generating city brand equity by thematization in Hong Kong AUTHOR : Dr Chung Shing Chan                CO-AUTHOR : Prof Lawal M. Marafa       AFFILIATION :  The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Biography : CHAN, Chung-shing is a Research Assistant Professor at the Department of Geography and Resource Management at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. His doctoral research studies the potential of green resources for city branding in Hong Kong. His teaching areas and research interests include place branding and marketing, urban tourism, sustainable tourism and eco-tourism. ABSTRACT Thematization has been adopted as one of the strategies in developing positive, strong and distinctive images for cities to compete as tourism destinations and attractive residence for international audiences. Some of the emerging themes such as “green city”, “smart city” and “creative city” may contain distinctive characteristics and are becoming more popular in city marketing and branding. Among a series of popular city themes, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government has focused on positioning and developing Hong Kong as one or more of the themes under “green city”, “smart city” and “creative city”. However, whether or not these themes as strategic image associations are truly effective is still questionable. The literature of “green city”, “smart city” and “creative city” generally follows separate paths of development though slight overlapping might have appeared in small areas of discussions. There is no single study of how city consumers or users (such as tourists) perceive and understand the underlying elements of these themes together in a city. As one of the ultimate goals of the thematization strategy is city brand building, a possible approach to study the potential of this strategy is to identify how much brand equity (i.e., the added value of a brand) may be established from the themes. The present research pioneers in bringing the apparently separated knowledge of green city, smart city and creative city together. This presentation introduces a research idea of examining how the underlying elements in each type of the selected city theme carry the potential of building place brand equity. Undertaking Hong Kong as a case for an ongoing study, this presentation brings out separated sets of variables for screening and measurement by reviewing relevant literature in each of the themes. The variables undergo research methods including a modified Delphi expert screening and a questionnaire survey on inbound tourists in Hong Kong, which result in preliminary findings of refined variables. Through the use of statistical analysis, expected components of the integrated “city theme” will be generated.
Prof Edwin Gomez

Prof Edwin Gomez

USA

TITLE : Urban Park Use and Psychological Sense of Community AUTHOR : Dr Edwin Gomez         AFFILIATION :    Old Dominion University, United States of America        Biography : Dr. Gomez is a Certified Park & Recreation Professional (CPRP) and has been at Old Dominion University for over 15 years. He has published in top journals in the field of recreation and leisure. He has published dozens of articles related to ethnicity/race and recreation/leisure, urban parks, leisure constraints, leisure benefits, leisure conflict and dog parks.  ABSTRACT Gomez, Baur, Hill and Georgiev (2015) found that urban park proximity was significantly related to psychological sense of community (PSOC). Additionally, they found that park users had higher PSOC than non-users. Kweon, Ellis, Leiva and Rogers (2010) remarked that the presence of natural areas has a strong effect on peoples’ evaluation and perception of their neighborhood. Lackey and Kaczynski (2009) suggestion that aesthetics of the urban park may be a variable of interest. McMillan and Chavis (1986) suggested that PSOC primarily relates to feelings of belonging to a group. McMillan and Chavis distinguished between four dimensions of PSOC: (a) membership, (b) influence, (c) integration, and (d) shared emotional connection. Membership is a sense of feeling one has as a member of a group. Influence refers to the importance of an individual to the group and the influence the group exerts upon its members. Integration was seen as an expectation that members’ needs will be met by the resources provided by the group. Lastly, shared emotional connection was described as a feeling of shared history within a community. APPROACH: Gomez et al.’s recommended the use of the Sense of Community Index-2 (SCI-2; Chavis, Lee, & Acosta, 2008) to assess PSOC. Parks in the study were selected to achieve a sample with an adequate number of whites and non-whites to explore the role of race in relation to park use and PSOC, given the relevance of race in previous studies (Shinew, Floyd, & Parry, 2004). The current study explores the relationship between urban parks and PSOC by comparing users and non-users and white and non-white respondents to assess if there are differences in use or perception of quality by either of these groups in order to contextualize demographics and park use.  Data were collected via face to face interviews using a questionnaire in fall of 2012 and summer of 2013, with N=300. Park use and perception of the park (overall rating) were entered into a regression to see what the relative impact is of each of these variables on PSOC. SIGNIFICANCE: Scales used to assess PSOC, using the SCI-2 were consistent with previous findings, with high reliabilities (Cronbach’s α > .88) for all four subscales and the total SCI. The park user group (M=1.62, SD=0.72) was significantly higher in their PSOC than the non-user group (M=1.40, SD=0.70), with t(298) = -2.62, p = .009, thereby corroborating Gomez et al.’s (2015) previous findings. Whites represented 46.3% of the sample. No significant differences were found between frequency of park use between whites/non-whites; however, there was a difference in terms of the intensity of park use, where whites stay 10 minutes longer on average.  Regression analyses indicate that there is no significant direct relationship between park use and PSOC; however, there was a significant direct relationship between perceived quality of the park and PSOC, further reinforcing the notion that having a park in a neighborhood, even when not always used, has value for the neighborhood.
Prof Attila Barcza

Prof Attila Barcza

Hungary

TITLE : Transforming parks to promote cities as valuable tourist destinations AUTHOR : Prof Attila Barcza        CO-AUTHOR : Dr Locsmandi Szabolcs                     AFFILIATION : University of Western Hungary, Sopron, Hungary  ABSTRACT The Hungarian tourist destinations are in a competition, with other internationally well-known tourist destinations in terms of price, marketing and quality. The Hungarian operational conditions and possibilities, due to political, historical and economic reasons are very different from their West-European counterparts. The Pan-European Picnic Memorial Park, which is the venue of the UNESCO World Heritage,  won the European Heritage Label prize in 2015. In 1989 the reunification of Europe may have contributed to this breakthrough. After winning this prize, it created more opportunities in the region, and gives possibilities to promote Hungary as  an international tourist destination. This research study attempts  to investigate  the  feasibility  to attract tourists to the region, based on its   unique venue  as an  award winning destination.  Sopron may serve as an attraction to international visitors with its Memorial Park, culture, and history. The research makes a comparison, by a secondary source utilization, among the service estimation of the Sopron Region completed in 2013, and the destination development strategy and guest satisfaction research of 2014, and the integrated settlement developing strategy of the city of Sopron. As a primary research we are using a survey, measured in 2015, among visitors  to Sopron in terms of touristic attractions and transformations. The hypothesis of the research is that Sopron and its region will have had real chances by 2020, for the conditions to become an international touristic destination. It is essential to define the roles of touristic impacts and transformations. The indicator of the development could be the new dual carriageway to Vienna, the chance to reach Vienna within an hour, and the accomplishment of the renovations and constructions in the vicinity of Sopron. (For example the complete renovation of the historical inner city, a new swimming pool with high European standard in the Lővérek outskirts, the quarry and Cave Theatre of Fertőrákos as the strengthening of the destination). The paper refers to  the obstacles and dangers, which might have a negative effect in the long term.
Prof Francis Lobo

Prof Francis Lobo

Australia

TITLE : Leisure Happiness And Development: An Australian Perspective AUTHOR : Prof Francis Lobo AFFILIATION : Edith Cowan University, School of Business, Perth Western Australa  Biography : Francis Lobo is the Honorary Professor in the School of Business at Edith Cowan University in Perth, Western Australia. He has had a long and distinguished teaching career in leisure and sports management studies. He obtained his doctorate at the University of Western Australia and completed Masters’ degrees in the United States and Australia. With undergraduate studies done in the United Kingdom, India and Uganda, Dr Lobo is uniquely qualified to teach and speak internationally. He has been an invited speaker in several countries that include the United States, the UK, Canada, India, China, South Korea, South Africa, Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Sweden and The Netherlands. He has conducted study courses, spoken at national and international forums and mentored students from around the globe. He has authored books, written articles in journals and chapters in books. He was a past Director of the World Leisure Organization, having previously served as the inaugural Editor-in-Chief of the World Leisure Journal. In 2000, Dr Lobo was awarded The Frank Stewart Award for outstanding contribution to the Parks and Leisure Industry in Australia over many years. In 2012 he was awarded the Cornellis Westland Humanitarian Award presented in Rimini Italy. Francis Lobo’s current research interest is the relationship of leisure, happiness and development. ABSTRACT The term quality of life has been used to evaluate the general wellbeing of individuals and societies. It is used in contexts such as development, freedom, life satisfaction and subjective wellbeing. Evidence shows that as incomes of individuals and societies have risen, so have standards of living. However, indices of happiness and life satisfaction in societies have remained constant. For the poor, rising incomes have led to greater happiness. For the rich, getting richer, happiness has not increased. In general this paper examines data from representative national and international surveys. It focuses on Australian society. By comparison, happiness indices have risen in a majority of nations and Australia is no exception. The extent to which leisure and happiness is affected in a turbulent world is examined. Data suggest that increased free choice in countries has a major impact on happiness. Over recent years however, economic downturns have impacted on Gross National Productivity (GNP). Whether these economic downward slides have affected Australian leisure participation is examined and analysed. A conceptual framework is developed by showing the difference in the concepts of happiness and leisure. Happiness is a feeling. Leisure is an activity. Further, both concepts are distinguished between short and long-term benefits. Short-term happiness is described as hedonic moments and long-term as eudaemonia. Short-term leisure is described as casual and long-term as serious leisure. Both concepts have common elements of experience and time. The paper demonstrates how different forms of constructive leisure lead to feelings of happiness.
Gabriella Pinto

Gabriella Pinto

USA

TITLE : Preferences for leisure time physical activities: a dynamical systems approach AUTHOR : Ms Gabriela  Baranowski Pinto            CO-AUTHOR : Till Frank                AFFILIATION : University of Connecticut, United States of America Biography : Ph.D student of the Centre for the ecological Study of Perception and Action (CESPA) of University of Connecticut-CT-US (since 2014). Master degree at leisure studies, a multidisciplinary course (Leisure, Culture, and Education) from Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-MG-BRAZIL (2009). Major degree at Physical Education from Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais- Licenseship (2006) and Bachelor (2010). Interests: leisure, complex systems, dynamic systems, leisure time physical activities, modeling, public policies, education, health. ABSTRACT Human behavior and human decision-making can be studied in the context of leisure time physical activities (LTPA). An understanding of how community members select their preferred LTPA seems to be in particular relevant for policy making in many different areas (e.g. leisure, health, economy). LTPA such as walking/running, strength training/gymnastics, or soccer can have a mutually exclusive character and compete to a certain extent with each other. A dynamical model is proposed in terms of a Lotka-Volterra model to account for the competing character of main LTPA. The model describes the evolution of the preferences for LTPA under mutually inhibitory interactions between the activities. Importantly, the model is formulated on a time-discrete scale.  The model can be fitted to data observed on a yearly basis as provided by VIGITEL, a Brazilian surveillance system of from the Health’s Ministry of federal Brazilian government. Each year, between 2006 and 2013, about 54000 adults above 18 years old from 26 state capitals and the federal district answer telephone interviews. Among other matters, participants are asked about their main type of LTPA in the last three months, considering a list of 16 possibilities. The first spontaneous answer is considered. In this data set trends with significant negative correlations consistent with the competition hypothesis have been observed. For example, in Belo Horizonte city men’s preference for soccer decreased over the years, while the preference for gymnastics increased during the same observation period. Among women of the same city the gymnastics practices increased over the years and walking/running practices decreased in the same period. Two sub-hypotheses are discussed for the Brazilian data set: the slow and fast adaptation hypotheses of human preference adjustments. According to the slow adaptation hypothesis, human preferences for LTPA evolve on a rather slow time scale of several years. The Brazilian data observed on a yearly basis reflect the transient development of the behavior of community members towards a stable fixed point. The model-based data analysis provides an estimate for the fixed point, which in turn can be used to predict the future behavior of members in the observed communities. In contrast, the fast adaptation hypothesis states that community members quickly adapt to the circumstances in their communities such that measures observed on a yearly basis represent the steady state or fixed point preferences of the members under the given circumstances. Variations as observed in the Brazilian data set could be due to accessibility to LTPA facilities, to urban violence levels, among other causes. Under the fast adaptation hypothesis, the model-based data analysis provides insights into how strong is the impact of social/environmental-changes on the community member behavior. It is argued that the social/environmental-impact can be used as an indicator of the usefulness and success of government policies with focus in the increase of LTPA practices. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between the social/environmental-impact measure and policy-induced social/environmental-changes speaks for a successful and useful policy. In contrast, a zero or even negative correlation could indicate that the policy should be re-considered.
Galit Nimrod

Galit Nimrod

Israel

TITLE : Innovation Theory Revisited: Self-Preservation vs. Self-Reinvention AUTHOR : Prof Galit Nimrod AFFILIATION : Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel BIOGRAPHY : Galit Nimrod, Ph.D., is an associate professor at the Department of Communication Studies and a research fellow at the Center for Multidisciplinary Research in Aging at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. She holds a Ph.D. in Communication and Journalism from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and she was a Fulbright post-doctoral scholar in the Gerontology Center and the Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies at the University of Georgia, US. Dr. Nimrod studies psychological and sociological aspects of leisure and media use among populations with special needs such as older adults and people with disabilities. In the past few years her studies focused on E-leisure activities and their functions for individuals and various social groups. She published extensively on this topic in leading scientific journals and presented her studies and ideas in numerous international conferences.  The nature of her research is theoretical, cross-cultural, and inter-disciplinary. It combines knowledge and methods from various fields including sociology, psychology, mass communication, new media, social work, and culture studies. Yet, it has a clear and rather practical aspiration – to contribute to developing adequate leisure, media and culture services and in so doing contributing to a better quality of life for disadvantaged groups. Abstract Differentiation between Self-Preservation Innovation (SPI) and Self-Reinvention Innovation (SRI) is central to the Innovation Theory of successful aging (Nimrod & Kleiber, 2007), in which the term “innovation” denotes addition of a new activity to the leisure repertoire. The theory suggests that both SPI and SRI may contribute to well-being in later life. Based on a telephone survey of 545 retirees aged 60 and over, this study aimed at examining the two types of innovation in leisure and their association with well-being.  Among the 545 participants, 30% reported adding at least one new activity, and overall the data enabled classification of 217 of the 250 new activities reported. Analysis indicated that SPI activities were significantly more common than SRI activities (169 vs. 48, respectively). Most SPI activities (75%) associated with previous interests, while only 42% related to former relationships and 29% were connected with earlier skills.  Innovators who reported adding at least one SPI activity had significantly higher life satisfaction than the rest of the sample. No such difference was found regarding innovators who added SRI activities. To determine whether differences in life satisfaction resulted from SPI activities or from differences in background characteristics and leisure repertoire, a three-step linear regression was conducted. Results showed that it was not the type of innovation, but rather its result – namely, a greater leisure repertoire among innovators – that predicted post-retirement life satisfaction.  These findings call for reconsideration of the main tenet of Innovation Theory, stating that innovation promotes well-being in later life. Having at least one group of innovators reporting higher life satisfaction provided support for this principle. The prediction of life satisfaction according to total leisure repertoire rather than type of innovation is also in line with this tenet as Nimrod and Kleiber maintained that the impact of innovation on well-being is not direct. Accordingly, it appears that the innovators who added SPI activities reported more satisfaction with life than others because they had a greater leisure repertoire that accorded them more sources of challenge, companionship and meaning.  One may still inquire why this was not the case for innovators who added SRI activities, even though they too enjoyed a greater leisure repertoire than the rest of the sample. A possible explanation posits that only SPI promotes well-being in later life, underscoring the importance of internal continuity. Yet, there are two other possible explanations for this finding. First, the innovators who added SRI activities may have practiced a kind of selective innovation that is particularly effective in enhancing well-being in later life. Second, it is possible that life satisfaction affects type of innovation rather than vice versa. In other words, people who are more satisfied with their lives tend towards preservation, whereas other innovators search for ways to reinvent themselves. Results stress the need for further quantitative research. Specifically, we require longitudinal studies that measure the meaning and benefits of each new activity and its impact on self-perception and well-being over time.
Gordon Walker

Gordon Walker

Canada

TITLE : Leisure Participation, Basic Psychological Needs, and Quality of Life AUTHOR : Dr Gordon Walker     AFFILIATION : University of Alberta, Canada                        Biography : Dr. Gordon J. Walker’s research program integrates social and cross-cultural psychology and leisure theory. He is particularly interested in how culture and ethnicity affect leisure behaviour (e.g., need satisfaction through, motivations for, constraints to, experiences during, and outcomes of, leisure, including quality of life). ABSTRACT There are three fundamental human psychological needs: (a) autonomy, which involves freedom to initiate and regulate one’s behaviour; (b) competence, which involves effective functioning; and (c) relatedness, which involves people feeling they are connected to others (i.e., basic needs theory, or BNT; Deci & Ryan, 2000). Satisfaction of these needs positively impacts various quality of life (QOL) dimensions (Vansteenkiste et al., 2006). A recent meta-analysis (Kuykendall et al., 2015) indicated the above held true in the leisure domain, although how this process occurs was somewhat uncertain. Thus, this study examines: (a) how satisfaction of the needs (i.e., NS) for autonomy, competence, and relatedness influence life satisfaction, positive affect (e.g., excited), and negative affect (e.g., nervous); (b) whether people also engage in leisure to escape need dissatisfaction (i.e., END) experienced in the non-leisure domain (cf. Iso-Ahola, 1982); and (c) whether END predicts QOL beyond NS. Data were collected from Canadian adults who had recreationally gambled during the previous six months, using a telephone survey. Individuals (N=236) provided information on their: autonomy, competence, and relatedness NS during leisure; autonomy, competence, and relatedness END; life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect; and socio-demographic background. Participants were primarily female (57.6%), married/with partners (69.9%), and 35 to 64 years old (68.2%). After determining, using an exploratory factor analysis (oblique rotation), that the three NS and three END scales loaded on two factors, NS sand END scale means were calculated and dependent t-tests were conducted. During leisure, participants’ need for autonomy (M=4.00) was satisfied more (p<.01) than their need for competence (M=3.85) which, in turn, was satisfied more than their need for relatedness (M=3.69). In contrast, participants employed leisure as a means to escape relatedness and competence dissatisfaction (M=3.72 and M=3.69, respectively) in the non-leisure domain more than autonomy dissatisfaction (M=3.55). Life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect, were each regressed separately on: first, autonomy NS alone and then in conjunction with autonomy END; second, competence NS alone and then in conjunction with competence END; and third, relatedness NS alone and then in conjunction with relatedness END. Hierarchical regressions showed that: (a) although autonomy and competence NS predicted (p<.05) life satisfaction, their END counterparts did not (with relatedness END also predicting life satisfaction); (b) although competence and relatedness NS predicted positive affect, the inclusion of competence and relatedness END, respectively, increased explanatory ability; and (c) although neither relatedness NS or END influenced negative affect, competence NS and END (with negative and positive coefficients, respectively) did so. Autonomy END also impacted negative affect.This study integrates BNT (Deci & Ryan, 2000) and the approach/escape component of Iso-Ahola’s (1982) leisure satisfaction framework. In doing so, it provides new insight into why people participate in leisure and how the satisfactions they accrue can both improve and impair their QOL (e.g., competence NS decreasing, and competence END increasing, negative affect). Furthermore, because recreation professionals can facilitate satisfaction of clients’ basic needs (Walker, 2011), this study has important practical implications.
Heather Gibson

Heather Gibson

USA

TITLE : Travelling with Dad: Exploring the leisure-travel experiences of non-resident fathers AUTHOR : Heather Gibson CO-AUTHOR : Adrienne Kendall AFFILIATION : University of Florida, United States of America  ABSTRACT In recent years there has been a renewed focus on leisure and tourism in the context of family (e.g., Hodge et al, 2015; Schänzel et al 2012).  However, despite calls to understand diverse family forms or focus on fathers (Kay, 2006), as yet our knowledge about how various forms of leisure are experienced in non-traditional families, particularly the experiences of families with a biological parent who does not share the same home (Jenkins & Lyons, 2006), is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the leisure-travel experiences of nonresident fathers who take pleasure trips with their children.  Specifically, the motivations, constraints, travel behaviors, and benefits associated with their trips were examined.  Ten men (fathers) aged in their 30s through to their 60s who did not reside with their biological children, were interviewed using a semi-structured interview format.  Initially, snowball sampling was employed, followed by purposive sampling to achieve balanced representation in regards to age and gender of the participants’ children. The children of the participants ranged in age from pre-school to college. The data were analyzed using grounded theory methods guided by the theory of Situated Fatherhood (Marsiglio et al, 2005). Four themes were identified: (1) Creating a New Normal, where trips were used to solidify the new family unit frequently following a divorce; (2) Making Travel Happen, where fathers described their trials in planning travel and the constraints they negotiated to ensure that they could travel with their children; (3) Travelling with Dad, where they described their experiences with the trips and their perceptions of their child(ren)’s experiences; and (4) Happy Memories, where the fathers reflected upon the value of such trips for them and their child(ren).  Overall, they felt the positives outweighed any difficulties encountered and that such trips created a safe setting that allowed them to practice the act of “fathering” and was a means by which they maintained and solidified their relationship with their children. The study enhances our understanding about the unique travel experiences of men in family tourism contexts.  It also supports the notion that the phases prior to, and following travel should be considered along with on-site travel behaviors in order to capture the complexity of tourism experiences for individuals.  Further research directions include using quantitative methods to explore the generalizability of these inductively derived findings and to explore the benefits and experiences of leisure-travel for other populations who sit outside of the traditional family unit.  In particular, women have played a major role in planning travel for their families (Fodness, 1992) or such decisions have been made jointly (Kang, et al, 2003), as we go forward how can the experiences of these fathers and others in non-traditional family units be accommodated by the tourism industry?
Hsuan Hsuan Chang

Hsuan Hsuan Chang

Taiwan

TITLE : Flow experience in the leisure activities of retirees AUTHOR : Dr Hsuan Hsuan Chang                            AFFILIATION : Ming Chuan University, Taiwan BIOGRAPHY : Dr.H.H Chang is a full-time associated professor at Leisure and Recreation Administration Management department, Ming Chuan University, Taiwan. She received her Ph.D degree from Park, Recreation, and Tourism Resources, Michigan State University in 2003. Dr. Chang is very active in academic researches and has two main focuses. The first one is the tourist’s way finding behavior in unfamiliar cities. The second is regarding Leisure Flow Experience. ABSTRACT Leisure becomes an increasingly important part of older adults’ lives, especially for retirees. Leisure could provide benefits in many aspects such as the improvement in physical and mental health, life satisfaction, and social life. Stebbins (2007) found that some people could attain extraordinary leisure experiences if they participated in serious leisure activity while engaging at high levels of intensity, involvement, and commitment rather than casual leisure pursuits Flow is characterized as an intense psychological state when an individual participates in activities in which the challenges and skills involved are high and balanced at the same time. The activities could take place during work time, house work, leisure time or anywhere else. The study aims to investigate how retirees reach the flow experiences from participating in their leisure activities and consideration of how gender, leisure activities, location, and social contact affect the flow experience. The study participants are twenty retirees ranged from 45 to 86 years of age. Ten are female; the rest are male who were recruited from personal social connections. They were all relatively healthy and participated in different leisure activities on a daily basis. The research tool was the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), developed by Csikszentmihalyi et al.(1977) which was used to collect data about individual’s feelings in naturally occurring situations. Study participants, they were asked to complete the Experience Sampling Form (ESF) at least five times per day. The ESF included a self-report questionnaire to capture participant’s experiences at the assigned time. The questionnaire included : activities they were engaged in (house work, leisure, open-ended), the location, skill  level and ability of their partners and themselves to participate in the activities. A series of questions were designed to measure their mood by using semantic differential scale. To investigate the experience of flow, the study used two variables – perceived challenge and perceived skills of the activity, measured by 1 to 100. For challenge, “1” refers to very easy; “100” refers to “difficulty”. For skill, “1” refers to “not well”; “100” refers to “very well”.  The study received 700 questionnaires and 61% (429) were completed when they participated in leisure activities. Another 269 questionnaires were submitted when they were doing non-leisure related activities. The report only analyzed 429 questionnaires. Of the 429 surveyed, 42% was considered as serious leisure; the rest was casual leisure activities. The 49% of leisure activity participation was conducted alone; while the other activities included other people such as spouses, children, friends, strangers etc. By comparing the difference between the perceived skills and challenge, 23% of leisure activities reached the “flow” experience. According to Cross-tab analysis, serious leisure participation has higher percentage in experiencing the flow. Study participants conducting leisure activities alone could experience the FLOW more than with other people. However gender and location will not affect effect their flow experience of leisure activity. The findings of this study support the findings of the study by Mannell (1993).
Jak Punchoopet

Jak Punchoopet

Thailand

TITLE : Unknown Artist: World Leisure of Graffiti Artists on Ruins AUTHOR : Dr Jak Punchoopet                     AFFILIATION : Naresuan University, Thailand  Biography : Punchoopet, Jak, Assoc. Prof. PhD., is an associate professor, lecturer and researcher of Public administration Department, Social Science Faculty, Naresuan University, and a deputy director of continuing education center at Naresuan University. His research focuses on sexual politics, sexuality and gender discourses, politics and society, Human rights. ABSTRACT Graffiti, the images created from spray paint appeared on the ruins of a building or structure in many places in Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand. These graffiti or images are free from expression of their own contributor. They are appeared in the morning of the next day without seeing the process of drawing and painting by anyone because the graffiti artists prefer to create work at night. Purpose of this study was to determine conceptual work of the graffiti contributors, and to aware of proposal to open up space for arts of these contributors in society. Data were collected from the sampling group of eight graffiti contributors by in-depth interview with informal questions. The study found that these sampling are fond of graffiti and seen the graffiti as another form of art that was developed according to the change of technology and society. Although these contributors were not received education system in arts but their products present an inner drive in arts, formed by their attention and emotions of arts. Interestingly, the truly arts implication is that these products were not worked out for commercial purposes and no any drive in economy. In contrast, the graffiti contributors have to responsible for their own materials and travelling expenses and also seeking a place to create graffiti by themselves. Therefore, no belittling of one’s better than another does not exist in spiritual artists but aims to create their own works, no paint over other people’s work and no presence ownership of the work. If such places or locations already have other persons created work, they will keep seeking for new locations. Their satisfaction does not come from having people appreciate their work because art does not require appreciation but reflection of creator’s feelings out and having seen by others. In regard to suggestion and conclusion, creating a space for the arts and the artists to stand in society is a good idea because these graffiti creators did not cause trouble to anyone. In contrast, graffiti is a means of changing the abandoned and ruin structure to be valuable ruins and a pleasant recreation area. If the government and other sectors concerned are well aware of this matter, graffiti should be promoted or at least should not be banned the action as illegal while those ruin structures are abandoned without value. Therefore, government should accept and open space up for these graffiti contributors to create a piece of art in society.
Jiangong Tan

Jiangong Tan

China

TITLE : The effect of Electronic leisure products on the lifestyle of Chinese college students AUTHOR : Dr Jiangong   Tan CO AUTHOR : Xinhui Wang AFFILIATION : Guangzhou Sport University, China                                            Biography : Jiangong Tan, Professor, Ed.D received his BA in PE from Xi’an Institute of Physical Education, M.S in Athletic Training from Guangzhou Sport Univsersity, in China, and Ed.D in Sport and Leisure Service Management from University of Northern Iowa in USA. Currently, an Associate Professor in Department of Leisure Sport and Management in Guangzhou Sport University, and also a member of WLO. his research emphasize on Sport and Public Leisure Service Management. ABSTRACT With the rapid advancement of new technology and information systems coupled with easy availability and the low cost. More and more electronic leisure products are entering our daily lives. These products have become a major form of leisure  and is influencing college students’ lifestyles.  Unfortunately, the majority of college students would rather spend more of their leisure time playing electronic games, watching movies, having we chat and reading news or novels through their mobile phones, computers or i-pads and the like.  Rather than going outdoors to participate in physical activities, such as, football, basket ball and other such sports including aquatic sport events or other activities that require physical involvement. Today, this unhealthy form of leisure participation has become a serious social issue especially with the influences it has on a college students’ daily lifestyle, especially their physical and physiological health. The purpose of the study is to probe the effect of electronic leisure products on the daily lives of college students’ in China.  A combined method of qualitative and quantitative research was employed for investigating 969 male and female college students spread across different majors who are attending six universities in southern China. The study also interviewed 12 instructors who have the responsibility of instructing the students’ from their respective colleges and universities about lifestyles and studying regimes.  The findings of the study indicate that:  Most college students who indulge in playing with electric products may have in irregular eating habit. Students  less social interaction and suffer from loneliness and lack self confidence  because, they seem to live in a  world of self isolation most of the day and don’t like or try to communicate with other people.  The participating rate in outdoor activities of college students is evidently decreasing when compared with data prior to the new technology/information era, especially those that need physical exertion. Such as water sports, ball sports, and outdoor leisure activities. The students’ physical condition, such as muscle strength, flexibility, endurance etc, is weaker, including their eyesight is compromised, due to their extended time spent indoors. To summarize, this research suggests that college students should undertake to spend a certain amount of time to participate in outdoor leisure activities every day.  Additionally, by selecting a healthy leisure lifestyle is beneficial to their future.
Joanne Schroeder

Joanne Schroeder

Canada

TITLE : Time Philanthropists: The New Volunteer AUTHOR :  Ms Joanne Schroeder AFFILIATION : Vancouver Island University, Canada  Biography : Joanne is a Department of Recreation and Tourism teaching faculty, Vancouver Island University, located on the west coast of Canada. Her community of practice has spanned the private, public, not for profit and now academics. Working alongside 700 other camp volunteers each summer has given her an insight into why people are willing to give of their time. ABSTRACT Summer camp is a nostalgic experience that brings back memories of canoeing, building campfires, creating amazing crafts and having too much sugar, but who cares Mom is not there.   Camp organizations are struggling to keep their operating cost down as they are strained to find volunteers and many have had to move to permanent staffing and increased fees to keep their doors open.  That approach is at the expense of the leisure experience itself.  It has created barriers to cost and participation. With over 200 + acres, Camp Imadene on the West Coast of Canada creates a unique case study for analysis.  Since 1926 Camp Imadene has been providing quality Christian camping to children, teens and adults from all over Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and parts of the globe.  At Imadene, relationships are what they are known for, and they hold an industry best 1:2 staff to camper ratio.  That commitment requires a vast array and number of volunteers that commit their time and skills.  This camp could not operate without the volunteers and its unique model is built around volunteer management and youth leadership development and growth. With over 700 volunteers serving each year and offering over 40,000 hours of human resources the question begs, why do they keep coming back and who are they?  From doctors and nurses, architects, chefs, cabin leaders, lifeguards, videographers and so many more they are willing to serve and come back at minimum 3-5 years.  These time philanthropists are giving up their pay for one or more weeks of volunteering and continue to return year after year. This presentation will explore the very successful recruitment and communication strategies, training model, and retention techniques that keep over 700 people giving of their time.  Feedback from focus groups will provide insight into why they do what they do and what motivates their commitment, and finally why they see their roles as so much more then volunteers but rather TIME philanthropists.
Johan Barnard

Johan Barnard

South Africa

TITLE : Critically evaluating the changing trends in leisure and park design at the hand of current project examples. AUTHOR : Mr Johan Barnard                       AFFILIATION : Newtown Landscape Architects, South Africa Biography : Registered professional landscape architect with twenty five years  experience in landscape architecture and urban design.  Specialising in construction detailing, as well as contract documentation, site supervision and contract management.   Managing Newtown Landscape Architects CC since 2004 overseeing the firm and it’s 12 staff. Currently involved with NMT projects for the JDA; Westdene Dam and Wemmer Pan master plans and Ekurhuleni IRPTN projects. Recently completed the Ridgeside Precinct 3, Umhlanga; Johannesburg BRT Environmental Upgrade and 43 Sport of Change community sport facilities in 12 Municipalities for SRSA & KFW. He is a past President of ILASA and SACLAP and holds a Master’s degree of Environmental Planning (Urban Design) 1993 (MEP Urban Design) University of the Witwatersrand – Thesis: “Urban Ecology: Towards a model for sustainable development.” ABSTRACT Investigating several park and open space projects in the second decade of democracy and highlight new developments and changing attitudes towards outdoor design. Starting from the planning of a large inner city park for Johannesburg and the ideas which influence modern park planning like landscape urbanism.  We will also consider the influence of urban design and the key role parks play in urban renewal of the Germiston CBD through the Fire Station Park. At the hand of the Biomimicry Park just outside Knysna we will consider this innovative trend and its implications for unique places and spaces.  Finally we will review the roll of new technology in park design through the Tshwane Calidonian Park Legacy Project, where holistic thinking makes for a comprehensive park wich include spaces to play for young and old next to the CBD of Pretoria.  Park blend design, art and ecological functions together in an inclusive space catering for inner city living and where parks could be part of our every day life.  South Africa has caught up with the rest of the world where parks are more than just jungle jims and benches, but a functional land use, addressing issues of urban drainage, micro-climate and ecology, but still including variety of amenities for pensioners, parents and children alike.  The park connects with the city along it’s bus rapid transit system and non-motorized cycling routes. It caters for lunch breaks for businessmen and after school play of flat dwellers. It is a place for a leisurely walk or a quick workout before work and leisurely play with your children over weekends – a park for every day use!
John Henderson

John Henderson

USA

TITLE : Benchmarked Customer Satisfaction Surveys for Leisure Programs: Potential Benefits AUTHOR : Mr John Henderson  CO-AUTHOR : Mr Michal Dziong AFFILIATION : Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission, United States of America         Biography : John Henderson has over 26 years of experience in parks and recreation in the United States, including twelve years with the Chicago Park District and 14 with The Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission where he serves as Research and Evaluation Manager in the Department of Parks and Recreation. John is a certified parks and recreation executive, attorney, city planner, public participation practitioner, arbitrator, and mediator. John holds a Juris Doctor degree from The John Marshall Law School, Bachelors in Community Planning from the University of Cincinnati and a Certificate in Public Performance Measurement from Rutgers University.  He is on the Board of the Commission for Accreditation of Park and Recreation Agencies, serves on the professional examination test committee for the National Recreation and Park Association and teaches courses on evaluation and public engagement at the national park and recreation directors school. ABSTRACT This paper examines the potential benefits and challenges associated with establishing a national system of benchmarked customer satisfaction surveys for recreation and leisure programming in the United States. It shows how a standardized approach to surveying that is coupled with an effective mechanism for benchmarking will enhance the validity and reliability of data and, at the same time, allow participating units to compare performance rates against those of peer organizations. The knowledge gained will allow agencies to implement more effective service improvement initiatives. The paper also outlines key challenges associated with putting in place a benchmarking framework, including those connected to implementation of standardized survey approaches and creation of a centralized database for storing benchmarked data. The customer satisfaction survey is one of the most effective and frequently used tools to evaluate programs and services offered by government agencies. While examining survey data helps track trends and identify challenges, benchmarking results against those of similar organizations can offer a significant added advantage.  By examining how peer agencies are doing, an organization is able to not only identify opportunities for service improvement but also engage in direct conversation with top-performers and learn from their experience. However, the establishment of an effective benchmarking system is possible only if participating units are employing a consistent methodology based on a common survey framework. In the United States, park and recreation departments regularly conduct client satisfaction research to evaluate their programs and facilities. However, unavailability of standardized measurement tools tailored to agency needs prevent meaningful apples-to-apples comparisons. Consequently, agencies are unable to derive full benefit from conducting client satisfaction research.  This paper demonstrates how approaches taken in other jurisdictions and by organizations representing other public service areas can serve as a model and, in some instances, be replicated in the recreation and leisure service context. The analysis will be rooted in both broader research considerations as well as in the unique requirements of United States park and recreation agencies. The importance of client satisfaction research in public and non-profit sectors is becoming increasingly apparent throughout the globe. This trend reflects the shift towards a more citizen-centered philosophy, where the voice of the client provides the ultimate verification of service impact. Given this service environment, the use of benchmarking should become an essential tool for park and recreation agencies looking to enhance the quality of their programs based on the voice of their clients in concert with   industry standards.
John Tower

John Tower

Australia

TITLE : Community Partnerships through Leisure Management AUTHOR : Dr John Tower AFFILIATION :    Victoria University, Australia Biography : Dr John Tower has been working in the leisure, recreation and sport industry for over 30 years with a particular interest in community sport and recreation participation and the delivery of community sport and recreation services. His involvement in sport and recreation academia is driven by a keen interest in the capacity of positive sport and recreation experiences to contribute to individuals and a community’s quality of life. He is involved in teaching in the Bachelor of Sport Management degrees and the Master of Sport Business and Ingrity course. He is also working with PhD candidates who are conducting studies related to sport social capital, youth physical activity participation, aquatic and recreation centre development and corporate fitness programs. He has a passion for working with students and delivers a variety of learning experiences to help students discover the value of sport and recreation participation so they can deliver quality services and programs. John’s current research is investigating the benefit that community aquatic and recreation centres provide to their local community. John also serves on academic and industry-based boards and committees to share his expertise and to remain informed about contemporary issues in sport and recreation services. ABSTRACT The need for community groups to establish partnerships in leisure service delivery has been an accepted principle for several decades (Andereck, 1997; Crompton, 1989; Selin & Myers, 1995; Uhlik, 1995) but there are issues related to how leisure services manage their partnerships (Babiak & Thibault, 2008; Forde, Lee, Mills & Frisby, 2015; Frisby, Thibault & Kikulis, 2004; Shaw & Allen, 2006; Thibault, Kikulis & Frisby, 2004, Tower, McDonald & Stewart, 2014). Even though community partnerships have been identified as a key principle for leisure service delivery, there is still evidence that many leisure services are challenged to manage effective partnerships (Forde, et al., 2015; Tower, et al. 2014). A better understanding of the issues related to leisure partnerships and how to manage these partnerships will assist leisure managers to improve their service delivery. This presentation is based on over a decade of leisure partnership research. Resource dependency theory (Pfeffer & Salancik, 2003), inter-organisational relationships (Oliver, 1990) and relationship marketing (Tower, Jago & Deery, 2006) provide theoretical frameworks to explore leisure service partnerships. Qualitative studies have investigated the constructs associated with successful partnerships (Tower, Gibbs, Jago & Deery, 2001; Tower, et al. 2006) and partnership practices (Tower, et al. 2014). A quantitative study identified the constructs that were most likely to influence successful partnerships (Tower, Jago & Deery, 2010). Barriers to effective partnerships are attributed to lack of awareness and focus, insufficient resources and a lack of skills. What is disappointing among some leisure managers is their reluctance to embrace innovated practices and to step beyond their minimalist level of leisure service delivery. In particular, there is a reluctance or inability for some leisure managers to collaborate with other community groups to include disadvantaged members of their communities in their leisure programs. Too often leisure managers do not work beyond the confines of their leisure service to build community collaboration that will lead to leisure partnerships that will achieve more inclusive programs. Fortunately, there are some managers who recognise the need to change their practices and are working to shift the paradigm of their service delivery (Kuhn, 2014). In order to achieve successful partnerships, leisure service managers need to: i) manage their communication strategies at formal and informal levels to connect with the breadth of relevant community programs, ii) use the communication to build trust among partners so everyone understands that partners will make decisions that reflect the interests of the partnerships; iii) provide leadership that motivates and generates enthusiasm among partners; iv) make the effort to understand the partners’ goals and values so the mutual appreciation can guide partnership decisions; v) cooperate through a range of coordinated initiatives; vi) make sure all partners commit resources at a level commensurate with their ability to contribute; and vii) deliver quality outcomes. More effective and strategic management of partnerships will enable leisure services to include more diverse sectors of their communities and enhance the quality of leisure programs.
Junichiro Inutsuka

Junichiro Inutsuka

Japan

TITLE : Leisure as regeneration of “Contingence” of human existence : Leisure philosophy based on studies mesology, phenomenology, and information sociology AUTHOR : Dr Junichiro Inutsuka AFFILIATION : Jissen Women’s University, Faculty of Human Life Sciences   Biography: Japanese philosopher, information sociologist. Management Information Ph.D. P ABSTRACT Leisure in Modern age has the meaning to explore the human way of life, as a reflection on the nature of labour centred society. In that sense, in order to ask what is worth for us and what we should pursue, the concept of Aristotle’s happiness is significant. From the Greek word eudaimonia, which implies living and doing well, we can derive the ethics and political philosophy to criticize our modern industrial society (Nicomachean Ethics, 1095a15–22). But today, the society is changing its structure dynamically, through the development of information technology and market globalization. In addition, the rapid development of Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things is changing human living environment into different from the conventional. It is so to speak, is the arrival of the situation in which the environment dominates the human consciousness and force the worldview. Does this mean that the crisis of human existence thoroughly realized, as phenomenologist had advocated? This paper explores to clarify this theme by referring phenomenological studies of technology and to solve the problem in association with the concept of Mesology, Science of milieux. The basic character of the human environment today was transformed from the natural and organic to the construct of techno-science, as to be called “”the technological conjuncture””, which has come to be regarded unconsciously as milieu for human activities (Imamichi, 1990). As technology is not only the means of sophistication and efficiency but also the worldview to compel the consent of the phenomenological evidence of human world, through dependence on technology, human beings are forced to regard all of existence as materials, “Bestand”. The recognition and worldview of modern people are dominated by the nature of the technology, “Ge-stell” (Heidegger, 1953). The techno-environment forces human beings into accepting meanings (recognition of what) and into constituting semantic network (living world), as being strengthened constantly (Blumenberg, 1963).  Augustin Berque’s Mesology provides a synthetic view for human Milieu as the ontological structure of human existence, depicted as “Trajectivity” and “Contingence” as opposed to the Western traditional metaphysical framework. Trajectivity is the concept of the ontological structure of human beings as mutual relational process, which is capable of explaining the formation process of specific landscapes, urban, institutional, lifestyle, regions, and cultural various of arts and works. Contingence is the concept for the generative structure of human reality, comprehended as co-arousal rather than the cause-effect relationship. It has a commonality with the concept of Buddhism, Engi. The meaning of leisure has changed in accordance with the structural changes in the industrial society. Today, along with systemization, or dynamic optimization, in all area of production, market and life, the technology-mediated environment given intelligence, or autonomous ubiquity of recognition and judgment, will govern the lifeworld and produces new evidence disenabling any existential quest. The major aim of leisure study today is to regenerate contingence as the essence of human existence, which is rooted in the body (physical and social) and nature, relationality among people; and applicable to economical-localization, ecological-symbiosis, livelihood-corporeality, and technological-conversion.
Ken Roberts

Ken Roberts

United Kingdom

TITLE : Youth, new media, leisure and politics in Saudi Arabia AUTHOR : Prof Ken  Roberts       AFFILIATION : University of Liverpool, United Kingdom                 Biography : Ken Roberts is Professor of Sociology at the University of Liverpool. His major research areas throughout his career have been the sociology of leisure and the sociology of youth life stage transitions. He was a founder member of the Leisure Studies Association, has been Chair of the World Leisure Organization’s Research Commission and President of the International Sociological Association’s Research Committee on Leisure. After 1989 he coordinated a series of research projects in East-Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. His current research is into youth in North Africa and the East Mediterranean during and since the ‘Arab Spring’. Professor Roberts’ recent books are Key Concepts in Sociology (2009), Youth in Transition: Eastern Europe and the West (2009), Class in Contemporary Britain (2011), and Sociology: An Introduction (2012). His latest book, The Business of Leisure, will be published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2015.
Dr Laura Rojas De Francisco

Dr Laura Rojas De Francisco

Colombia

TITLE : Home-based digital leisure AUTHOR : Dr Laura Rojas De Francisco CO-AUTHORS : Jordi López-Sintas, Ercilia García-Alvaréz               AFFILIATION : EAFIT University, Colombia   Biography : Laura Rojas De Francisco is a doctor in humanities – Production and Consumption of culture. Assistant professor in the EAFIT University in Colombia and Fellow Researcher at the Universitat  Autònoma de Barcelona in the  Consumption, Markets and Culture Research Group. ABSTRACT Doing the same things – but differently The introduction of the information and communication technologies in the home has transformed free-time leisure activities, although we actually know little about these changes. Adopting a constructivist and interpretive perspective, we analysed 30 individual narratives in order to describe how digital technologies have transformed home-based leisure activities in Spain. The results show that the changes brought about are qualitatively different from those produced by radio and television broadcasting and reproduction/playback devices. The digital technologies have not only increased exposure to different cultural experiences, they also allow people to control those experiences. Consumption of experiences is no longer homogeneous within household members; furthermore, family, friends, acquaintances, or strangers enter the home, symbolically, temporarily and virtually.  Individuals now have greater freedom regarding their choice of home-based leisure activities, and informants report being more satisfied with the leisure activities they undertake.
Lénia Marques

Lénia Marques

United Kingdom

TITLE : Events as online/offline leisure practices AUTHOR : Dr Lénia Marques      AFFILIATION : Bournemouth University, United Kingdom   Biography : Lénia Marques is lecturer in Events Management at Bournemouth University. She has several publications in the fields cultural tourism and events, and comparative and travel literature. Her current research focus is on place making, innovation, co-creation and engagement in events and tourism. ABSTRACT With the rise and democratisation of internet, different phenomena came to place. Society became increasingly networked (Castells, 1996) and forms of sociality also changed (Wittel, 2001). With economic and social developments such P2P interactions and growth of the sharing economy (Belk, 2014), leisure practices have also been changing dynamically. Within this framework, events are becoming increasingly important and although  it is a highly competitive field, events are part of different strategies and even have national and regional policies in some cases (for example, in the UK, Australia, or Scotland).  Although literature on events is growing, it is clearly a field where much research is still to be done. In particular, there is a gap in the literature on understanding the event experience in the different phases of the experience cycle (Ek, Larsen, Hornskov, & Mansfeldt, 2008). At the same time, little has also been done on understanding the relationship between technology (in particular social media) and the events experience. Therefore, this paper aims at interrogating the events experience both online and offline in its social dimensions.  The results presented will be part of the conclusions of an ongoing project on events experience, which uses quantitative approach. The findings should pin pointed some fundamental aspects of the experience and show correlations between different variables which affect the social dimension of this leisure practice.
Liandi Slabbert

Liandi Slabbert

South Africa

TITLE : Consumer response towards accreditations systems in hiking tourism AUTHOR : Mrs Liandi Slabbert   AFFILIATION :  SANPARKS, South Africa Biography : Liandi is a masters student at the University of Pretoria with a keen interest in consumer behaviour in the context of nature-based and adventure tourism. She is employed by the South African National Parks where she is tasked with the coordination of tourism research projects on behalf of the organisation. ABSTRACT The manifestation of consumer demand for an accreditation system is dependent on the acceptance of the system by a reasonable size of the market. Many suppliers, however, will not adopt such schemes before evidence of consumer demand cannot be presented. To ensure sustainability of the accreditation or certification scheme, a critical mass of at least 3% to 10% of the market is needed. The scheme would also need to be widely recognised amongst consumers to be effective (Lacher, 2012:5). Without such recognition, the case for a competitive advantage to suppliers would be difficult to prove (Leonard, 2011:8). Literature to suggest that a significant number of consumers proactively seek sustainable tourism certification is inadequate (Leonard, 2011:13; Lacher, 2012:10), indicating towards disparate results when it comes to tourist response to more sustainable and socially responsible practices (Chia-Jung & Chun, 2014:937). In examining the use of ecolabels in tourism, Buckley (2002:183) acknowledges that the extent to which it influences decision making amongst consumers and corporate environmental performance has not been adequately measured. The author adds that it could be a valuable environmental instrument, if ecolabels were to contribute to helping the consumer make an informed choice. Current research investigating the impact of accreditation on consumer decision making in general is insufficient, with no literature exploring its impact in a hiking tourism context.  This study took a quantitative approach in the form of a survey research strategy to measure the importance of and future intended response towards trail accreditation, as determined by consumers from two different populations: hikers and non-hikers. This was achieved by presenting a hypothetical country-wide implementation of a case study accreditation system to respondents. The Green Flag Trails Accreditation System (Green Flag), accepted as the official accreditation system of the Hiking Organization of Southern Africa, is the only trail accreditation system in Africa and receives support from major industry role players in South Africa. Respondents were presented with a graphical representation of the key information points provided by Green Flag and asked to rate how their current hiking activity levels (or lack thereof) would change (if at all) if all trails in South Africa were accredited and a trustworthy description of trail attributes were available. Prior to presenting respondents with the key information outcomes of Green Flag, hikers’ perceptions of the importance of trail accreditation in their decision making were measured to determine the need for such a system in general. The findings from this paper contribute to bridging numerous gaps in literature in the fields of adventure and nature-based tourism. The study demonstrates a link between accreditation and consumer decision making and the future uptake of hiking tourism amongst both hikers and non-hikers. The existing body of knowledge regarding consumer awareness and willingness to pay (WTP) towards accreditation systems and ecolabels in tourism is further strengthened through the knowledge presented regarding consumer response towards trail accreditation.
Liza Berdychevsky

Liza Berdychevsky

USA

TITLE : Men’s sexual risk-taking in leisure travel AUTHOR : Dr Liza Berdychevsky                                AFFIIATION : Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign  Biography : Liza Berdychevsky, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her areas of specialization in leisure and tourism include health and wellbeing; sexual risk-taking and violence-related behaviors, gender and identity; and qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research methods. ABSTRACT Various links between sexual risk-taking and health and wellbeing started drawing the attention of leisure and tourism scholars. Indeed, freely chosen sexual activity performed for its own sake should be understood as leisure, and the physical, mental, emotional, and social links between sexual behavior and health and wellbeing are numerous and potent. Some recent work has focused on the nexus of gender, life stage, and sexual behavior in leisure and tourism contexts, exploring women’s perceptions of and motivations for sexual risk-taking in leisure travel. Men’s equivalent perspectives, however, are still in need of investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore men’s sexual risk-related perceptions, motivations, and experiences in leisure travel. The data were collected using an online survey of 425 men (age: M = 26.07, SD = 7.85, range 18-61; racial/ethnic background: White – 67.5%, Hispanic – 12.7%, Asian – 9.9%, Black – 3.8%; origin: US-born – 79.8%, not US-born – 19.1%; relationship status: exclusive relationship – 47.8%, not in a relationship – 34.6%, casually dating – 12.9%) and analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics, including independent and paired samples t-tests and exploratory factor analysis. The results showed that men perceived various kinds of casual unprotected penetrative sex as involving the highest degrees of risk, followed by having sex with multiple partners, casual unprotected oral sex, casual protected penetrative sex, and having sex under the influence of substances (i.e., alcohol and drugs). As for the men’s experiences with these activities in leisure travel, 22.1% reported having experienced casual unprotected penetrative sex, 14.1% have had sex with multiple partners, 32.5% experienced casual unprotected oral sex, 30.6% had casual protected penetrative sex, and 51.5% had sex under the influence of substances. With the exception of casual unprotected penetrative sex, the men who have experienced the aforementioned sexual activities in leisure travel perceived them as significantly less risky than those who have not. Men’s sexual risk-taking perceptions were multidimensional, and they construed sexual activity in leisure travel as risky when it involved physical and legal, sexual health, and mental-emotional risks. The findings also revealed that men were driven by various reasons to get involved in sexual risk-taking in leisure travel, and their motivations were underpinned by three latent factors of safe thrills and empowerment, anonymous experimentation, and fun and opportunity. In addition, various characteristics perceived as facilitating or inhibiting men’s sexual risk-taking in leisure travel were explained by six underlying factors: five facilitators (touristic mentality and destination features; feeling differently [e.g., invincible and more sexually confident] during leisure travel; conducive [i.e., anonymous, transient, and tolerant] socio-cultural scene; leisure and detachment from everyday life; and alcohol/drugs consumption) and one inhibitor (socio-personal characteristics such as social control and being in a relationship). These findings contribute to leisure and tourism literature by shedding light on the under-researched topic of men’s sexual risk-taking in leisure travel and its links to their health and wellbeing. This study also points to the necessity of and offers some practical insights for the gender- and context-specific sexual health education programs targeting sexual risk-taking in leisure travel contexts.
Lynne Ciochetto

Lynne Ciochetto

New Zealand

TITLE : Leisure–Advertising–Sustainability: An exploration of the global sustainability AUTHOR : Prof Lynne Ciochetto AFFILIATION :  College of Creative Arts Massey University Wellington, New Zealand BIOGRAPHY : Lynne Ciochetto is an Associate Professor at the Institute of Communication Design, Massey University, New Zealand. Her research interests reflect her interdisciplinary background: sociology, anthropology, development studies and graphic design. Her recent focus has been the exploration of advertising and globalization in terms of social and cultural change. 2 areas have emerged: case studies of the globalization of advertising in country case studies (Russia, India, China, Vietnam and Thailand), complemented by thematic studies of the market sectors. Her latest research direction is an exploration of the environmental impact of the growth in consumption in emerging economies and the role advertising plays in the growth of consumerism. Her book Advertising and globalization in the emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China was published by Routledge London in December 2011. Latest research directions: “Designing for a better world”: the role of design as agent of social change; exploring the environmental impact of the growth in consumption in emerging economies stimulated by advertising and the media (including leisure consumption). Currently she is writing a book on The Future Sustainability of Sub-Saharan Africa: Comparing the Impact of China and the West in the Contemporary Era of Globalization, for Imperial College Press, London (2016). Abstract In the half century after the Second World War there were significant economic, social and cultural changes in the high income industrialised societies which make up approximately 15% of world population. Capitalism evolved as western markets became saturated, companies moved their production to the developing world and prices went down. There was an expansion in consumer goods production and the advertising sector increased dramatically. Advertising strategies evolved to sell those products and branding of products became increasingly sophisticated. Economic changes were accompanied by social changes notably the expansion of the middle classes, a product of rising standards of living and higher levels of disposable income. One of these changes was an increase in leisure time. Cultural and technological changes plus the marketing of products stimulated the growth of a culture of consumption including a commodification of leisure. In the contemporary period a significant proportion of leisure time is spent using technology, ranging from watching television to using digital media. An explosion of mass tourism has occurred since the 1970s with the introduction of international airline travel. Tourism and travel is the largest category of contemporary leisure expenditure. Since the 1990s another social revolution has occurred, with the expansion of the middle classes in the ‘emerging economies’ which make up the other 85% of world population. One of the defining characteristics of this group has been the rapid embracing of consumer lifestyles and culture. Many of the western leisure pursuits being adopted have large ecological footprints, particularly tourism, travel and the use of digital technologies. The adoption of these leisure patterns in the two largest countries in the world, India and China, which have 36% of world population, have major implications for global sustainability. This paper explores the sustainability issues and impact of these particular leisure activities in the West and future implications for India and China in terms of carbon emissions, waste and resource depletion.
Lucetta Tsai

Lucetta Tsai

Taiwan

TITLE : A Comparative Study of the Strategic Choice of Air Sports in Taiwan and AUTHOR : Dr Chiungtzu Lucetta Tsai        AFFILIATION :  National Taipei University, Taiwan                  Biography : Dr. Chiung-Tzu Lucetta Tsai is an Associate Professor of Leisure & Sport Management in the Business School Department of National Taipei University in Taiwan. Dr. Tsai is also president of Chinese Taipei Waterski and Wakeboard Federation and the Taiwan Leisure Association. She is currently serving as a member of the board of directors for the World Leisure Organization and commissioner in the Gender Equality Committee in the Cabinet in Taiwan. Abstract This research has an attempt to study the management and development of aeronautic sports in Taiwan and mainland China. Air Sports is still not a well-known leisure activity, or sport event in Taiwan and mainland China until this decade. Lacking of government’s official support, some enthusiastic air sports lover work hard to introduce these fantastic flying experience to people living in Taiwan and China. General Administration of Sport of China and Chinese Taipei Aerosports Federation have dedicated in this field and started getting feedbacks. The aim of this study is to address the strategic choice of air sports in Taiwan and China. Documentary analysis and in-depth interview will be adopted in this study. The main argument of the study is that, firstly, to understand the history of development of air sports in Taiwan and China; secondly, to evaluate the rules and regulations of air sports cross straits; thirdly, to explore the constraints of current development of air sports in Taiwan and China; fourthly, to analyze the trends for the air sport; and lastly, to discuss safety issues of aeronautic sports in general.
Ma Huidi

Ma Huidi

China

TITLE : Recreation Space and National Health AUTHOR : Prof  Huidi Ma AFFILIATION : Centre for China Leisure Studies, Chinese Nation Academy of Arts, China Biography : Prof  Huidi Ma, is the Director and Distinguished Researcher at the Center for China Leisure Studies, Chinese Nation Academy of Arts and the President of The Professional Organization on the Leisure Philosophy in China and is affiliated with the American Academy of Leisure Science and the Research Committee of Leisure for International Sociological Association.    Since 1995, Dr. Huidi has been doing research on leisure phenomenon. Starting in 1998 she organized and translated a 5-volume “Western Works in Leisure Studies” translation series first set and in 2003 she organized and translated the second set.   Dr. Huidi has published about 80 papers and 5 monographs on leisure studies. She also did advisory and consultancy work for policy making regarding Urban Creational Space and International Conference. She hosted and completed multiple projects on the relationship between Leisure and Civilization from government. Dr. Huidi also planned the China Annual “Leisure and Social Progress” Conferences in China 14 times between 2002-2015.   Her research areas include: leisure philosophy, leisure sociology and cultural leisure. ABSTRACT Recreation space is one of the important areas of human leisure life and spiritual life; it originated from the newsstands, bars and music room in the 18th Century. Then, there was a rise of street parks in urban areas which included stadium, gym, playground and other forms in 19th Century. Later on, those have become essential principle for city construction and planning as well as a urban public service as one of the necessary conditions taking a step-by-step approach in 20th century.    Recreation spaces are usually divided into three kinds of patterns: Individual living, public and commercial. 1).Individual living space refers to the self supply for one’s entertainment venues and services for relatively personal activities, such as their lawn, balcony and a read room, to search for a quiet and elegant lifestyle.2).Public sector and non-profit organization offer leisure facilities and services for national life, such as the opera house, concert hall, cultural centers, museums, libraries, art galleries, a stadium, a children’s playground and others to promote magnificent spirit;3).Commercial recreational space refers to the leisure products, facilities and services provided by commercial businesses and organizations for the purpose of obtaining profits, including theme parks, fitness clubs, holiday farms and vacation pastures; to make people’s leisure consumption possible. Park is an important part of recreation space. Its function is not only to beautify the city, but it closely linked with the people’s physical and mental health. In the well-being society, the park is one of the contents of the government’s public service, and it is playing an irreplaceable role in the physical and mental health of the people. In this regard, Europe and the United States have the matured experience and a classic sample. But China has learned a lot of harsh lessons in the process of urbanization in the past 30 years.  Nowadays, many countries pursuit economic development while ignoring the public service and the natural environment, even more benefits for businesses. It’s contrary to the public service mission and responsibility of government. This paper will explore the history and value of recreation space from the perspective of cultural sociology and discuss the positive correlation between recreation space and national health.
Prof Marc Cloes

Prof Marc Cloes

Belgium

TITLE : Physical education and leisure: What’s the link? AUTHOR : Marc CLOES AFFILIATION : Department of Sport and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Liege, Belgium  Biography : Prof. Dr. Marc Cloes pursues his academic career at the University of Liege (Belgium) where he is directly involved in the pre- and inservice physical education (PE) teachers’ education (http://www.ulg.ac.be/cms/j_5871/repertoires). His research is integrated to Sport pedagogy. It is inspired by the Teaching-Learning Process Integrative Model, an ecological approach underlining the relationship between the participants, the educator(s) and the context. On one hand, it aims to improve the quality in physical education, sport, and other forms of physical activity. On the other hand, it aims also to improve the quality of the physical educators training. The final objective is to contribute to the development of a more active lifestyle among the citizen of Wallonia, Belgium (http://orbi.ulg.ac.be/ph-search?uid=U012570). He is the President of the International Association for Physical Education in Higher Education (www.aiesep.org) . ABSTRACT All around the world, practitioners and researchers point out that people are becoming less and less physically active and adopt more and more sedentary behaviours. Such changes in the Human lifestyle could have dramatic consequences as pointed out by the ‘Designed to move’ movement (Morris, 2013). To fight against that irresistible evolution, the need of a multisectorial approach is illustrated by the complexity of the socio-ecological model (Sallis et al., 2006). It underlines the large array of variables that play in the physical activity that someone is able to integrate into his/her life.  Nevertheless, school has been identified as one major pillar of the promotion of an active lifestyle (van Sluijs et al., 2007). According to the knowledge and specific competences that they acquire during their studies, physical education (PE) teachers are considered as the potential cornerstones of such action (Tappe & Burgeson, 2004). While it was traditionally focused on the development of the youth’s physical, motor, and social competences of the students, since two decades, PE is increasingly more associated to the preparation of physically educated citizens. It means that what the students learn during their PE lessons should be useful outside the school and for a lifelong term. This concept is become a determining pedagogical principle: the physical literacy (Whitehead, 2013). In parallel, PE teachers are now requested to play a role on the health of their students despite if few evidence confirm that they can be successful in influencing the future behaviours of the children/adolescents to who they teach (Green, 2014). New pedagogical approaches are proposed nowadays in order to increase the effectiveness of the PE teachers’ intervention. This is linked to another pedagogical principle: accountability. Leisure activities enter progressively in the PE curriculum. Students benefit of more experiences that they could operate in their community. This requires more partnerships between school and leisure actors in order to implement original projects. Students must learn to become autonomous and smart decision makers able to identify the way to integrate PA in their leisure.
Dr Mark Needham

Dr Mark Needham

USA

TITLE : Recreationists swimming with manta rays: Conflict, sanctions, and management              AUTHOR : Prof Mark Needham     CO-AUTHOR : Brian Szuster        AFFILIATION : Oregan State University, United States of America   Biography : Dr. Needham is Associate Professor at Oregon State University. His BA and MA are from the University of Victoria, and PhD is from Colorado State University. He examines human dimensions of natural resources; has published 53 articles, 1 book, and 9 chapters; and is Editor of Human Dimensions of Wildlife. ABSTRACT Wildlife viewing is a popular form of leisure and nature-based recreation. Scuba diving and snorkeling with manta rays at offshore sites near Kailua-Kona in Hawaii, for example, have increased in popularity with the number of tour boats doubling in the last decade. Studies have examined biophysical impacts of these activities, including damage from feeding or getting too close to marine species. Increasing use, however, can also generate social impacts such as conflict among participants, but little is known about conflict when viewing manta rays. This research was conducted at these sites in Hawaii to address four questions: (a) to what extent is conflict occurring among snorkelers, scuba divers, and videographers; (b) what types of conflict are occurring (one-way, two-way, in-group, out-group, interpersonal, social values); (c) are users who experience conflict more supportive of strategies for managing use than those not experiencing conflict; and (d) are users who experience conflict more likely to impose sanctions in response? Interpersonal conflict involves the physical presence or behaviour of a group interfering with other groups. Social values conflict involves different norms about an activity and occurs without physical contact between groups. Data were obtained from an onsite survey of 444 recreationists immediately following their trip to view the rays (89% response rate). Conflict was measured by asking how frequently five events per activity happened (e.g., bumping people, being rude/discourteous, blinding people with lights) and whether each was problematic. In total, 92% of snorkelers saw other snorkelers bumping into people, and 73% witnessed snorkelers not being aware of others. Similarly, 65% of scuba divers saw other divers bumping people, and 56% saw divers blinding people with lights. Cluster analysis revealed that 66% of snorkelers experienced in-group conflict with other snorkelers and this was split between social values and interpersonal conflicts. Only 29% of scuba divers experienced out-group conflict with snorkelers. In total, 45% of divers experienced in-group conflict with other divers with most of this being interpersonal. Similarly, 41% of snorkelers experienced out-group conflict with divers with this split between social values and interpersonal conflicts. Fewer than 25% of respondents experienced conflict with videographers, and less than 2% experienced both social values and interpersonal conflicts with any group. The majority of respondents supported information on how to behave with other users and limiting numbers of snorkelers, divers, and boats at these sites. Those experiencing conflict were significantly more supportive of these management actions and were also more likely to directly sanction recreationists causing the problems, but were not more likely to indirectly sanction managers or tour operators. This is important because researchers who have found conflict in other studies have usually just suggested approaches for mitigating problems, and little research has investigated the role of sanctions in conflict situations. It is possible that recreationists could experience conflict, but not do anything about it and not support management actions because they restrict access. Questioning users directly about personal and managerial responses to conflict can take the guesswork out of speculating about how recreationists will respond.
Dr Marie Young

Dr Marie Young

South Africa

TITLE : Western Cape on Wellness (WoW!) initiative baseline studies on preferences to participate in physical activities for recreational purposes AUTHOR : Dr Marie Young          CO-AUTHORS : Prof. E.V, Lambert, Dr. S, Bassett, WOW Consortium       AFFILIATION : University of the Western Cape, South Africa   Biography :  Dr Young lectures at the University of Western Cape, with an interest in the field of leisure, recreation and  therapeutic recreation. Currently involved in various community based research with inter-professional partners from national and international tertiary institutions. These projects are related to health and wellness promotion. I am further exploring therapeutic recreation as a developing profession in South Africa. ABSTRACT In South Africa, the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) affects more than 2 in every 5 adults, more than 1 in every two adult women and 1 in every three men are either overweight or obese.  Nearly 1 in 3 adolescents watch more than 3 hours of television daily, and nearly half of all adults are insufficiently active.  In 2007, obesity and inactivity together were estimated to account for 4% of disability-adjusted life years in South Africans.  In the Western Cape Province, the overall burden of NCDs (heart and vascular disease, lung disease, diabetes, and cancers) accounts for more than 35% of all deaths, and surveillance indicates that the prevalences of adverse lifestyle behaviours including physical inactivity, smoking and overweight and obesity are all higher in the Western Cape than in South Africa, as a whole. A major priority area of the WCG Department of Health (WCDoH) is to promote healthy lifestyles using a settings-based approach – the workplace, school and community. Through the adoption of an “all government” and “all society” approach, the overarching goal is together to co-create and sustain a culture of wellness at all levels of society in the Western Cape in order to prevent, reduce and better manage NCDs. The is an initiative aimed to promote a healthy lifestyle movement in the Western Cape by advocating and activating physical activity and healthier eating in order to prevent and reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s). Leisure opportunities are integral components to be considered in changing behaviour as means to promote health, wellness and quality of life.  The aim of this study was to determine to what extent participants preferred physical activity as a recreational activity.  The recreation experience preference scales (REP scale) was used as part of the base line testing. Participants were recruited in the three settings: worksites, schools and communities. Team leader volunteers were  pre-selected by the WCDoH or their respective counterparts in the various government departments.   The results will be presented at the congress.
Ms Meghan Muldoon

Ms Meghan Muldoon

Canada

TITLE : Photo-storying slum tourism: Narratives of being part of the tour AUTHOR : Ms Meghan  Muldoon AFFILIATION : University of Waterloo, Canada Biography : Meghan is a Ph.D. Candidate in the department of Recreation and Leisure Studies at the University of Waterloo in Waterloo, Canada. Her previous work experience has been in community development and youth-led development, leading social planning and community-based initiatives in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, and Canada. Her Ph.D dissertation research is focused on the host gaze, power in tourism encounters, gender and embodiment, feminist postcolonialism, and slum tourism in Africa.          ABSTRACT Slum tourism elicits strong opinions regarding morality, the impact on host communities, and the motivations of the visiting tourists (Freire-Medeiros, 2013; Frenzel, Koens, & Steinbrink, 2012). Supporters argue that this form of tourism brings urban poverty out of the shadows, allows residents to share their stories, educates tourists about the ‘reality’ of the places they visit, and brings much-needed capital into communities with limited access to other economic opportunities (Basu, 2012; Freire-Medeiros, 2013; Frenzel, 2012; Scheyvens, 2011). Those opposed claim this is little more than repackaged voyeurism or “poverty porn” (Frenzel, 2012, p. 57), where residents have little or no say in how the tours are delivered, and that the tours may actually place downward pressure on infrastructure development, as the appeal of the slum for tourists is its degraded and chaotic state (Basu, 2012; Freire-Medeiros, 2013; Scheyvens, 2011).  Many studies have highlighted the perspectives of academics, development practitioners, the media, and tourists, whereas very few studies have focused on finding ways to allow local people to have their opinions and experiences heard (see Mekawy (2012) for a quantitative examination of residents’ perceptions of local tourism). I intend to present the initial findings of my research into the host gaze as expressed by local people with experiences of being part of a Township tour in Cape Town. While much tourism scholarship has focused on the tourist gaze (Urry, 1990) and the ways in which the power-laden gaze of the tourists constrains local people, increasingly researchers are turning their attention to the ways in which tourism hosts also gaze back and have their own ways of exercising a controlling gaze in the tourism encounter (Cheong & Miller, 2000; Moaz, 2005; Moufakkir & Reisinger, 2013).  The question at the heart of my research is: how do local people interpret, play into, and/or resist the tourist gaze? The theoretical lens that guides my research is feminist postcolonialism. Approaching postcoloniality through the lens of feminism will allow me to examine how legacies of colonialism and imbalances of power continue to inform these tourist-host relationships, while recalling that each individual’s experience is situated by gender, race, and locality. (Lewis & Mills, 2003). The methodology employed in this study is photovoice. Community members will be invited to take photos that represent what tourism is like in the township, as well as what tourism ought to be like. The purpose of this research is to learn how local tourism stakeholders apprehend the pre-conceived notions that underlie the tourists’ gaze and how they use their own host gaze to resist or embody the gaze that is imposed on them. Through photo-elicitation, active, conversational interviews, and a number of community and participants’ meetings, this research initiative will enable local people to share their voices through their photographs and narratives. My intention is that these photographs and narratives will provide an engaging and evocative glimpse of what it is like to be on the other side of the tour, which will be of interest beyond the realm of academia.
Ms Meng (Joanne) Wu

Ms Meng (Joanne) Wu

Taiwan

TITLE : The Quality of Leisure and Tourism in Peak Season AUTHOR : Ms Meng Wu               AFFILIATION : Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Biography : Currently studying towards a Msc in Tourism and Convention Management at  The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Worked as a  Training Manager, LUZHOU LAOJIAO, Co., Ltd;  Front Office Service Agent-VIP Service, Wynn Macao Resort and  completed a Bitm in International Tourism Management, Macao University of Science and Technology ABSTRACT  This report is about the quality of leisure and tourism in peak seasons, and there is a review of the quality of leisure and tourism under different dimensions which can be read in the report. Nowadays, Tourism is becoming a very popular way of leisure, especially in Mainland China; most of people will choose travel around in public holidays, these days are called peak seasons. And this situation causes a chain reaction. In this period, because of the lack of human resources, service quality is not guaranteed, and the tourism environment will also be affected, at this time, can the quality of people’s tourism and leisure be essentially guaranteed? In the report, I will demonstrate the quality of people’s travel satisfaction and travel time diagram through the data, and show in the stage of tourism impact on other relevant industries, and through quantitative and qualitative analysis as the research method. And at last, I would like basing on the travel industry in mainland China, put forward the corresponding opinions with this topic. And I hope to solve this problem to some extent, ensure the quality of tourist season of the leisure tourism. A highly grow speed in tourism and leisure is a very big challenge for us, but we can make decision and choose the best way to make our growth sustaining, it should be the best consequence.
Miklos Banhidi

Miklos Banhidi

Hungary

TITLE : Leisure clusters in Central Europe AUTHOR : Prof Miklos Banhidi                     CO-AUTHORS : Beata Dobay Janos Selye (University Kinga Nagy University of Physical Education, Gusztav Tornocky University of Physical Education   AFFILIATION : University of West Hungary, Budapest, Hungary   Biography : Dr. Miklos Banhidi is currently working at the University of West Hungary as professor and head of Recreation Management and Health Promotion program. He teaches recreation management and sport and health tourism classes in BSC and master programs. His research interest is geography of leisure, sport and tourism and he has published numerous articles on these topics nationally and internationally.  . He is actively involved in the Semmelweis University Doctoral School, where he supervises 5 students. During the past 20 years, he has worked extensively with national and international organizations.  He served as vice president of the United Games International Organization for 20 years. In 2005, he was elected to the board of the Hungarian Sport Science Federation and spent 2 years on the advisory board of the Youth, Sport, Tourism Commission at the national Parliament. In 2009, he was elected to the Board of Directors of the World Leisure Organization.   ABSTRACT   Since most of the Central European countries joined the Shengen Treaty, there were several leisure projects were developed in cooperation of neighbors. There are internationally known projects, which have unique bakgrounds. One of them is located at the Austro-Hungarian border called the Ferto region which established in 1979. The area was announced a Biosphere Reserve by the UNESCO-MAB program. Its international importance is underlined by the fact that the entire, together with the Hungarian and Austrian national parks, embraced by the shoreline settlements received the title World Heritage form the UNESCO World Heritage Convention in 2001. The other one is the Komarno-Komarom „Oned town two countries” project located on the border line between Hungary and Slovakia. The town was divided after the first world war and the citizens had to suffer from different political directions. The situation has changed after abolishing the border within the European Union. The present wish of the population is to unite the town again, which can be realized step by step starting with leisure projects. In this study the driving forces of co-operations between countries and what conditions help or interfere with the developments were investigated. The leisure development situation was evaluated from four aspects: natural, social, economical and infrastructural.  For the analysis information on the geo-political situation was collected such us common historical background and traditions, policies and infrastructure which form the basis of the cooperation elements. It is clear that none of the cases analysed represents a fully operational leisure cluster. The ‘gap’ between theory and practice varies for each case, but it seems that many of the problems revolve around the shift from a ‘passive’ agglomeration of leisure enterprises into a ‘dynamic’ leisure cluster. In most of the cases there is a lack of linkage between the strategic vision (or lack of vision) of the public sector and the ambitions and capabilities of the enterprises and/or knowledge institutions.  The leisure industry cluster in Ferto region is based mostly on the water activities, bike and wine tourism which is supported by a strong infrastructure. In Komarom region the event based leisure plays important role to connect citizens from both parts. Another strong element in the cluster is the involvement of the tourism attractions around the old military fort, which was the biggest fort in Europe. The obstacles in further leisure developments are traceable on the differences of language, currency, governmental taxes and policy. Other political issues included in the study were national identity, and opposition of political parties.
Prof Moniek Hover

Prof Moniek Hover

Netherlands

TITLE : ‘Becoming Vincent’: a narrative concept for Van Gogh’s Heritage Sites   AUTHOR : Prof Moniek Hover   CO-AUTHOR : Licia Calvi               AFFILIATION : NHTV University, Breda, the Netherlands   Biography : Moniek Hover PhD is Professor in Storytelling at NHTV University (Breda, the Netherlands), where she teaches in the applied and the academic bachelor ‘s and master’s  programs ( leisure/ tourism) and leads the research program around storytelling and consumer  experience.  With multidisciplinary teams, she provides research and (tourism) development  projects. ABSTRACT This abstract describes a research and development project, commissioned to Breda University  (the Netherlands) by several regional and tourist organizations in Brabant, a province in the south of the Netherlands.  Aim of the project was to draft a narrative concept and storylines which would link and upgrade various Van Gogh heritage sites in the area in order to eventually  attract international tourists to the province, especially in view of the commemoration of Van Gogh’s 125th death anniversary (2015). The world famous painter Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) is, in a European context,  mostly associated with the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, where his paintings attract 1.6 million (mostly international) visitors a year. Van Gogh as a person is mainly associated with France, where he spent the last few years of his life. This is where he ended up in a psychiatric hospital after having cut off his left ear lobe, and where he eventually took his own life. Few know that Van Gogh was born in Zundert , a village in Brabant, and that he spent his childhood and young adulthood in this province.  The challenge of the project lay in the fact that none of his artwork is permanently present in the province. Another challenge was the very broad target group, which was defined as international tourists with cultural interest, ranging from very shallow to very focused (McKercher & Du Cros, 2002). During the field research phase, observations were conducted and interviews were held with stakeholders from the Van Gogh locations.  When studying Van Gogh’s life,  we recognized universal themes like love, friendship, adventure, but also conflicts (with friends and family) and personal crises. In fact, when comparing Vincent’s life to a universal storytelling model, there was a complete match.  This 12 steps storytelling model (Bouma, 2010) is based on Campbell’s “Monomyth” (1949). It applies to many great tales and chronologically orders the  (metaphorical) steps that drive the “hero” in his actions.  We allocated the first 6 steps to the various locations where Vincent lived in Brabant, under the overarching narrative concept  of “Becoming Vincent”. At the locations tourists can experience how the events in Vincent’s early life lead him to become the troubled yet brilliant artist so well-known from his time in France (which we defined as “Being Vincent”), thus making a full narrative circle.  These and other universal characteristics of Vincent’s story will appeal to tourists from any international background with any level of cultural interest. Experiencing a certain step of Vincent’s life at one location will encourage the tourist to want to experience the rest of the story, at another location in Brabant, but also at other locations in Europe where he lived.
Mr Mdu Rhini

Mr Mdu Rhini

South Africa

TITLE : Correlates of the obesogenic environment and lifestyle behaviour to non-communicable diseases among rural residents AUTHOR : Mr Mdu Rhini CO-AUTHOR : Mrs S Naidoo AFFILIATION : University of Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  Abstract  Anecdotal evidence suggests that obesity and its co-morbidities such as Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiac diseases are increasing exponentially globally, even in countries where malnutrition was commonplace. In South Africa, studies have indicated that non-communicable diseases are affecting the country as much as communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. This places a burden on the productivity within the economy especially in addition to the quadruple burden of disease. NCDs however, are as a result of direct modifiable risk factors. The well-known fundamental determinants are physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, tobacco and alcohol use which are believed to be driven by underlying socio-economic and environmental factors. A growing body of knowledge suggest that there is a reciprocal causality between health behaviour patterns and physical environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the obesogenic environments and lifestyle behaviour, to NCDs among rural residents.  This was a cross sectional study completed in a rural area of St Chads in Ladysmith Local Municipality at the St Chad’s Community Health Centre. A total of 200 individuals diagnosed with any of the NCDs were identified by trained personnel and invited to participate in the study. Participants were interviewed on their lifestyle behaviour and the environment was assessed using a validated audit checklist. The results indicate the highest levels of participants with Hypertension and diabetes. The mean BMI was calculated as 29 and physical activity levels were relatively low. There was a significant negative relationship between BMI and PA levels (-.395, p < 0.001). Results of the environmental audit checklist revealed that the area is highly obesogenic lacking in recreational parks and green spaces, playgrounds, sidewalks, off-road walking/biking trail and outdoor pool. The low level of formal education among the majority of the participants may be an exacerbating factor leading to poverty and poor health.
Dr Natasa Valek

Dr Natasa Valek

United Arab Emirates

TITLE : The lifestyle of United Arab Emirates residents: ‘everyday’ leisure vs. travel AUTHOR : Dr Nataša Slak Valek                 AFFILIATION :    Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates   Biography : Dr. Slak Valek earned her PhD in Business from the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia, Europe). She teaches Tourism related courses at Undergraduate and Graduate level at Zayed University in Abu Dhabi. Her research focuses on Tourism & Leisure Marketing, and as a former professional athlete she is interested in Sport Leisure activities also. ABSTRACT Leisure researchers have generally shown that the leisure activities type and frequency remain fairly stable through the years (Janke, Davey & Kleiber, 2006). Thus, the education and leisure activities practiced in the youth, it is very important for the future life (Lee & King, 2003). Thus, it is crucial to understand what people do in their free time. The literature on how residents of United Arab Emirates (UAE) spend their leisure time is scarce. The purpose of our paper is to investigate which leisure time activities are practiced mostly by the residents of UAE. It has to be pointed out that nationalities and cultures living in UAE are different and very diverse. For example, in 2013 Abu Dhabi’s population was estimated to be 2,453,096, of which only 20.2% are Local Emirati and 79.8% are expatriates (Statistical Year Book Abu Dhabi, 2014). In consequence, the data presented in our research will look at the differences between locals and expatriates in leisure time activities. Moreover, the life-span development theory emphasised the importance environment and historical contexts in shaping the human development (Baltes, 1987). It is crucial to know that the country of UAE was officially established 44 years ago and Emirati people are by our hypothesis still affected by their history also when deciding for the type of a leisure activity. As found by Martin and Mason (2003) ‘traditional culture and religion are still important in shaping leisure behaviour, but a more Western pattern of leisure is emerging’. Thus, the second purpose of our paper is to understand what affect the leisure time of UAE resident’s today, looking at their demographic characteristics. Finally, the everyday leisure time activities vs. activities undertaken when travelling are studied in our research. Larsen (2008) discussed what consequences an everyday life perspective has for future tourism research, but this study considered the real applied data of UAE resident’s everyday leisure activities and compare it with the activities mostly undertaken when travelling. For this research study the standardised questionnaire developed by the International Social Survey Programme about Leisure Time and Sports (ISSP, 2007) has been used as a starting point, but adapted and adjusted for the purposes of our study and the culture of people surveyed (e.g. Muslims).
Ms Dagmar van Ham

Ms Dagmar van Ham

Netherlands

TITLE : Theme parks as a context for interaction rituals AUTHOR : Ms Dagmar van Ham Biography : Dagmar van Ham is currently graduating her Msc in Leisure Studies at the NHTV Breda university of applied sciences. In the meantime, she works at a theme park called The Efteling. Previously, she has graduated from the Bba. International Leisure Studies, with a minor in Theme Park Management and an internship at Walt Disney World. ABSTRACT Within contemporary society, due to digitalization of networks and individualisation in general, people are continuously and increasingly looking for the feeling that they belong somewhere. Sometimes this feeling of belonging to a certain group is shaped by leisure practices. Belonging somewhere and solidarity towards a particular group are parts of bonding social capital, as depicted by Robert Putnam (1999). Bonding social capital is social capital aimed at known-group socialization, such as socialization with family or friends. One of the outcomes of interaction rituals is this solidarity towards a group. This research goes into depth on how theme parks are serving as a context for interaction rituals. The research is being conducted on the basis of the “interaction ritual model” by Randall Collins (2004), with a combination of the experience model by Goossens and Mazursky (2008). This means that the research will explore interaction rituals before, during and after the theme park visit. The target group of the research is adolescent friend groups, aged 18-30 years old. The research will be conducted through qualitative research. Using netnography, participant observation and focus groups on the basis of photographs made by the participants themselves, the research will follow several friend groups on their visit to a theme park, with a goal to uncover what exactly their rituals are during this visit and what they mean to the group. Specifically, there will be looked at what the ritual ingredients and outcomes are, and how these influence the rituals within later phases of the visit. Once this is known, theme parks can use this information to design for this social interaction and make the experience even more memorable. In addition, the research may be beneficial for the design and management of theme parks, as well as similar experiences. By uncovering the rituals, it might be possible to design for such situations, and stimulate bonding throughout the complete experience. In addition, it will give an insight on this particular target group for theme parks, which might be beneficial for marketing purposes as well.
Ms Dipolelo Rossly Malema

Ms Dipolelo Rossly Malema

South Africa

TITLE : The Role of Community Arts and Crafts in the Empowerment of Women living in a Rural Environment  AUTHOR : Ms Dipolelo Rossly Malema  CO-AUTHOR :    S. Naidoo            AFFILIATION : University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa   Biography : Rossly Malema is currently a Junior Lecturer at the North-West University’s Potchefstroom Campus in the Recreation department. She studied with the University of KwaZulu-Natal for both her honours and very recently her Masters. Her passion lies in the use of leisure opportunities for the empowerment of rural communities. ABSTRACT The potential and benefits of leisure activities have received strong empirical support in the literature highlighting the economic, social and personal wellbeing benefits of individuals and communities. Engaging in leisure activities creates social bonds, foster understanding between individuals, and brings a sense of joy and empowerment which contributes to improving individual quality of life. However, for certain groups in society, such as women living in rural areas, participation in leisure pursuits is often limited by societally imposed gender roles, cultural, and religious factors. This is compounded by the lack of free time to engage in leisure pursuits due to the burden of the domestic workload. A major factor disempowering rural women is the lack of education and impoverished conditions which dominates their lives. Government and policy makers have recognised this as a global imperative and increased effort to find ways to empower women to combat inequalities. Acknowledging the lack of literature on leisure-based arts and crafts and women empowerment in non-western countries, this qualitative focus group study investigated the effect of participating in a leisure-based arts and crafts project on the economic empowerment of 18 rural women in the various municipalities within Limpopo Province in South Africa. Data were analysed using a thematic content analytic approach. Results showed that community art and crafts project serve as outlets for the economic empowerment of rural women, but such benefits can be maximised by addressing challenges defeating their empowerment purposes through education, training, increased access to funds and an increased awareness on the value of arts and crafts.
Prof Alison Doherty

Prof Alison Doherty

Canada

TITLE : Collective Volunteer Social Capital in Community Sport Organizations AUTHOR : Prof Alison Doherty  CO-AUTHORS : Prof Russell Hoye, Katie Misener AFFILIATION : Western University, Canada   Biography : Alison Doherty is a Professor of Sport Management in the School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Health Sciences at Western University, Canada. Her research is focused on organizational development in the context of nonprofit community sport and leisure. ABSTRACT As part of a larger project investigating volunteer social capital in community sport organizations (CSOs), we review the nature and impact of collective social capital within volunteer boards. Collective social capital refers to the resources available to a group through members’ relationships within the social structure of the group (Oh et al., 2006). While social capital is the resources and assets that may be generated and subsequently used when individuals and groups interact (Bourdieu, 1986), in the leisure context it is typically discussed with regard to individual and broader community impact (e.g., Arai & Pedlar, 2003; Darcy et al., 2014; Glover, 2004; Glover et al., 2005; Yuen et al., 2005); for example, because of a connection with others, one feels a sense of social support (Burnett, 2004; Nicholson et al., 2013), or is more likely to vote, or help a neighbor (Van Ingen & Van Eijck, 2009; Seippel, 2006). Providing a new contribution to the leisure literature, the larger project from which this paper stems is focused on social capital as a critical resource for the capacity of CSOs to achieve their goals. In this particular paper we present a theoretical model of collective social capital that may be produced (and reproduced) among members of the volunteer boards of CSOs as they work together. CSOs or clubs are small, nonprofit organizations that rely almost exclusively on the leisure time contributions of volunteers to govern and deliver competitive and recreational sporting programs in communities. The board is largely responsible for both the governance and day to day operations of these organizations (Cuskelly et al., 2006; Smith, 2000), and so social capital based on board member connections may be a critical resource for this group and the larger organization that it serves (cf. Fredette & Bradshaw, 2012). Building on the social capital literature, we propose that relational (e.g., trust, support, reciprocity), cognitive (e.g., mutual understanding, shared values, exchange of ideas) and structural (e.g., ties to others) capital can accrue over time among group members (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998), depending on the frequency and intensity of the group engagement (Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998), and the collective human capital (e.g., knowledge, experience) members bring to the group connections (Adler & Kwon, 2002). Closed and potentially exclusionary “bonding” connections among similar individuals, and more open “bridging” connections among individuals who differ, are also expected to influence the amount and distribution of social capital generated among members of CSO volunteer boards (Coffe & Geys, 2007; Putnam, 2000). The relational, cognitive, and structural resources that characterize social capital at the group level may be expected to shape group (i.e. board) performance (e.g., problem solving, innovation; Fredette & Bradshaw, 2012; Oh et al., 2004, 2006; Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998), and ultimately impact the capacity of the organization to achieve its goals (cf. Hall et al., 2003). The framework outlines the nature and development of social capital among volunteer board members in CSOs, and the relationship between social capital and organizational capacity as indicated by board and organizational performance.”
Dr Carolin Lusby

Dr Carolin Lusby

United States of America

TITLE : Community based tourism and sustainable development AUTHOR : Dr Carolin Lusby          AFFILIATION : Chaplin School of Hospitality & Tourism Management at Florida International University  Biography : Dr. Carolin Lusby is an Assistant Professor at the Chaplin School of Hospitality & Tourism Management at Florida International University, where she teaches graduate and undergraduate level courses in tourism, research methods and leadership.  She received her doctoral degree in Tourism Recreation and Sport Management from the University of Florida in 2007. Furthermore, Dr. Lusby holds a master’s degree in Tourism and the Environments from the World Leisure Center of Excellence at Wageningen University in the Netherlands. Dr. Lusby focused on  sustainable development of tourism and incorporated community based tourism in her study tours.  Dr. Lusby firmly believes in the value of meaningful study abroad experiences to foster the development of global citizens. Abstract The concept of community-based tourism (CBT) is not new, and definitions of CBT have proliferated in the years since Murphy (1985) expounded on the community involvement approach in tourism development. At its core, CBT is a grass-roots process whereby tourism is planned, managed by and benefits the local community in which tourism occurs (Matarrita-Cascante, Brennan & Luloff, 2010). A community that is involved in tourism planning and activity is a mechanism for a sustainable tourism plan (Tukamushaba, 2011) to create equitable economic, environmental, and social benefits. This presentation examines perceptions of community residents in the Ponte Negra community in Brazil and compares with community based tourism in Belize. This community has no roads, no electricity and has been untouched by tourism until recently when small groups have been able to visit for short amounts of time.  Meetings have been held with residents to determine tourism potential and community needs. Interestingly the community has a belief that tourism should benefit the poorest in the community through aid from groups.  Perceived benefits, expectations and motivations of community members are discussed. Presenters will also analyze the potential of community based tourism to contribute towards the 17 SDGs.
Dr Donna Woodhouse

Dr Donna Woodhouse

United Kingdom

ITLE : Understanding leisure sites:   Technology Enhanced Research for Practitioners AUTHOR : Dr Donna Woodhouse             AFFILIATION :    Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom  Biography : Previously a Research Fellow, carrying out evaluations for the UK Home Office, my teaching and research focuses on social and cultural issues in sport such as inclusion, community, crime and deviance.  I have worked in the voluntary and statutory sectors as a community safety and community development officer and manager on a number of regeneration projects. My work covered areas such as training groups in stadia communities, writing policy, addressing on street prostitution, countering hate crimes and supporting drug rehabilitation projects, as well as running initiatives to address city centre retail crime and anti-social behaviour.   I have also written on women’s football for Sport All, and worked as contributor/monitor for the Guardian’s Football All Talk web site. I hold a Postgraduate Certificate in Higher Education and am a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. I teach on a number of undergraduate and postgraduate courses, and supervise PhD and Professional Doctorate students. I have responsibility for enhancing student employability and am also Chair of Ethics. I have published around football for females, community development and sport and gender and, most recently, asylum seeker and refugee belonging and soccer.   ABSTRACT   The education and training of the next generation of leisure professionals is of paramount importance, in increasing levels of participation and satisfaction, and also in terms of enhancing student employability.  It is essential that workers in the varied and expanding field of leisure engage in practice which is responsive to change and underpinned by knowledge of a wide range of social issues.  ‘Embedding employability into the core of HE will continue to be a key priority of Government, universities and colleges, and employers…will bring both significant private and public benefit, demonstrating HE’s broader role in contributing to economic growth as well as its vital role in social and cultural development’ (HEFCE, 2011 p5).   Technology is transforming the way we teach and assess, and has significant implications for graduate employability and the development of the leisure sector, Castells (2000) pointing to the potentials for new technologies and communication media, and Kirkwood and Price (2014) writing of technology specifically in relation to learning and teaching in higher education.  Our first year undergraduate module is designed to equip students with core applied research skills.  Focussed on various leisure venues, the module draws heavily on Technology Enhance Learning (TEL) boosting the employability of students, as well as providing a range of methods through which to research their chosen sites.  Engaging in field research at an early stage also enhances the confidence and social skills of students, responding to calls from employers that universities ‘add value’ to those studying around both IT and softer skills. ‘Many of the employability skills that employers are seeking can only be learned in ‘real life’ situations’ (Johnson and Burden, 2003 p39).  In our teaching environment, students are confronted with researching the history, current and possible future uses of venues and also have to engage with those using the sites.  They utilise photography, video, interviews, observation and other research methods to create a webfolio.  Crucially, students engage with ethics and are also asked to reflect on their research. The module focusses on praxis responding to the challenge in the context of globalisation  ‘to find theory and practice which work at local, regional, national and global levels……we need to build strategies for collective action which support moving beyond the local to wider possibilities for collective strength’ (Ledwith, 1997 p104-105).  Essentially, we are training workers to be cultural intermediaries capable of generating communication between different communities (Blackshaw and Long 2005).  Drawing on the principles of Friere (1972) we aim at conscientisation for our students so that, as workers, they can engage in ‘sustainable, people centred development, equal opportunities and social justice’ (Craig and Mayo, 1995 p1).  Feedback from students has been extremely positive, class members valuing the autonomy of choice of venue and methods alongside the structured support of classroom sessions.  Students retain their webfolio as evidence of their skills and move on to more sophisticated research in the 2nd and 3rd years of their course, culminating in a research project.
Dr. Palle Siva S Reddy

Dr. Palle Siva S Reddy

India

TITLE : The choices and challenges of Eco Tourism and Responsible Management In Andhra Pradesh     AUTHOR : Dr Palle S S Reddy      CO-AUTHOR : Dr P Aparna            Biography : Dr.Palle Siva Sankara Reddy is a renowned academician, author and a historian.  He received Ph.D from Andhra University and is a Recipient of two distinct honorary awards namely, Best Teacher Award and Best Tourism Writer Award by the Government of Andhra Pradesh. Dr.Reddy authored 6 books and published 50 research papers pertaining to Tourism and History at National and International fora to his credit. His experience as Senior Manager (HRD) in AP Tourism and Development Corporation, his pivotal role in necessitating re structure courses in Tourism at Under-Graduate and Post-graduate level are few among the many other distinct contributions to the Tourism sector by Dr.Reddy. He did his Post-Doctoral Research on Rural Tourism through the most prestigious UGC National Research Award in the year 2009. ABSTRACT Eco-tourism is responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people. Eco-tourism is not only the fastest growing sector of the industry but also been accepted as a hopeful new approach to preserve fragile land and threatened wild areas, and to provide people in the host countries with opportunities for community based development. Eco-tourism is not a nature based Tourism attraction where visitors go and enjoy nature and its surroundings, but takes place in nature’s solitude and visitors and destination operators attempt to envisage appropriate methods and measures to give direct and indirect benefits both to hosts and guests in a mutually acceptable manner. It provides host communities with necessary economic incentives that will help to prevent the depletion and degradation of Tourism resources and contribute to the enhancement of the quality of the life of host communities. Its main emphasis on local resources and employment makes it attractive to developing countries like India. It is one such form of nature Tourism where visitors should use locally made products and services and seems cautious and careful about the carrying capacity and conservation of visiting resources. Action plan is needed for the promotion of Ecotourism in protected areas and the rich Bio-Diversity areas, a consensus among different departments, organisations and local bodies is needed. Considering the sensitive nature of fragile ecologies being handled, careful planning, execution of projects and management practices have to be evolved, necessary infrastructure has to be created, ancillary agencies like tour operators, professional Ecotourism guide services and Eco sensitive transport services have to be introduced. For these goals to be realised, a holistic and strategic approach is vital.
Dr Elie Cohen-Gewerc

Dr Elie Cohen-Gewerc

Israel

TITLE : Leisure and being free, the pivotal challenge of our time. AUTHOR : Dr Elie Cohen-Gewerc AFFILIATION :    Beit Berl College, Israel                                 Biography : Senior Lecturer and researcher in Beit Berl College. Freedom and the human challenge of being free is the main issue he investigates; wrote tens of articles and five books; the last (2013) “Serious Leisure and Individuality, with Robert Stebbins. His Ruskin Memorial Scholar lecture was published (World Leisure Journal, 2012) Abstract The word “”Leisure “”, solely contemplated, invites one to enter into a delightful mood of freedom.  However, which perception of freedom springs out in our minds? Are we sure that freedom is always synonymous with pleasure? Where does this freedom vanish when “”Leisure”” is over? On the other hand, what happens when circumstances force us to be outside of our familiar and well known space, disconnected from roles and obligations which use to be the tacit but essential ratification of our existence? What happens when we are dismissed from the “”All the world’s a stage””?  Do we conceive our freedom to be the basic axis of our human condition? Leisure and personal freedom, are two noble legacies of the Twentieth Century in the western world. How people do use, misuse and even abuse of this valuable heritage? Landing in the open space of leisure, are we able to be free? The discovery of freedom is neither a final nor a definitive result, it points out the real beginning of our search, of our intimate approach to the concept liberty.  Very often, people discover a freedom that “”isn’t the right one””.  Victims of their narrow minds, they rush through all the fences, thinking that freedom consists of a world without prohibitions. Their discovery is limited to the external circumstances and freedom becomes synonymous with permissiveness. Permissiveness means that people do not really acquire freedom but only lose their social framework. Their “”being free”” looks to them like the first joy of children whose parents are not at home.  They have a lot of fun, eat what they wish, organize a great battle with all the pillows, laugh a lot and enjoy fully the lack of parental supervision. But gradually their absence turns this euphoric sensation into anxiety. The children are no longer in a mood of “”feeling free””; they enter into the uneasy sensation of being abandoned!  In this same perspective we can say that “”the more the individual is freed and becomes the manager of himself, the more he seems to be vulnerable, fragile, internally disarmed”” (Lipovetsky & Serroy, 2008, p.59). Increasing number of “”friends””, more and more “likes” for innumerous “”selfies”” do not solve the feeling of fragility. The concept of leisure as vacancy of roles and supervision, can be a mirage of sovereignty.  For freedom is only a human prerogative and the tangible issue is how to become free.  Here comes the pivotal role of Leisure education while leisure can be the best workshop, training people towards personal and intimate freedom. Leisure training can be also a concrete path leading to real emancipation i.e. personal empowerment.
Prof Yuh-Cheng Fan

Prof Yuh-Cheng Fan

Taiwan

TITLE : Leisure Experience on the Camino de Santiago   AUTHOR : Prof Fan, Yuh-Cheng                 AFFILIATION :    Department of Leisure Management, Minghsin Univeristy of Science and Technology, Taiwan   Biography : She was Chair, Department of Leisure Management, Minghsin Uni. of Science and Technology (2008-2014), Editorial board of Asian Journal of Exercise & Sports Science (AJESS) (2011-14). She received her Ph.D. from Uni. of Munich, Germany. She is Member, WLO; Executive, WLO Chinese Taipei Chapter; Board of Director, Taiwan Leisure Education Association. ABSTRACT Leisure is often studied as a kind of experience. Two points are focused: firstly the freedom to make decisions and second the is the inner meaning. The process of leisure experience includes: expecting, participating and reacting. Josef Pieper regards also leisure as the attitude of receivable understanding, as the intuitional and contemplative sinking in the reality and points out that philosophical thinking is one kind of action to overstep the job world. The Santiago Camino in Spain has been traversed for thousands of years by saints, sinners, generals, misfits, kings, and queens. It is done with the intent to find one’s deepest spiritual meaning. From the leisure experience point of view, the motives and experience of the participants were studied on the Camino de Santiago. Through an analysis of documents, observation, and interviews, the study results show that  people walk this route for a number of reasons, some religious, some cultural, some for physical exercise or just as a choice of Journey, and others for personal growth; participants on the Camino de Santiago have got deep experience in all three process of leisure experience: expecting, participating and reacting; participants through the about one month’s hiking on Camino de Santiago have become positive physical, mental, and spiritual experience and development.
Dr Gyan Nyaupane

Dr Gyan Nyaupane

India

TITLE :  Understanding environmental behaviour based on participation in leisure activities AUTHOR : Dr Gyan Nyaupane                    CO AUTHORS : Robert Hobbins, Brenda Campbell            AFFILIATION : School of Community Resources and Development at Arizona State University   Biography : Dr Gyan Nyaupane is Associate Professor and Graduate Program Director in the School of Community Resources and Development at Arizona State University. He is also affiliated with the ASU Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability as a Senior Sustainability Scientist. He earned his Ph. D. from the Pennsylvania State University.  He is on the editorial board of six tourism/management journals, including Annals of Tourism Research and Journal of Travel Research. He has conducted research for many agencies, including Arizona State Parks, the USDA Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management, tourism industry sectors, and international conservation organizations, including the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).  For one of the recent research projects, he has developed an approach to connect communities and public lands through tourism. This project was initiated by the US Department of Interior and Department of Commerce.  He has extensive research experience in the fields of ecotourism, sustainable tourism, heritage tourism and community development, and published one co-edited book, and more than 45 peer-reviewed papers and book chapters. ABSTRACT Understanding environmental behaviour is central to natural- and common pool- resource management that can help untangle anthropocentric environmental issues. Past research has primarily focused on predicting and explaining human behaviour linking intentions, attitude, believes and behaviours using the theory of planned behaviour (Fishbein & Ajen, 2010), valued-belief-norm theory, and attitude, behaviour and context (ABC) theories. Empirical findings based on these theories, however, have yielded mixed findings. Stern (2000) contended that different kinds of environmental behaviour are guided by different causes, so each target behaviour should be theorized separately. This study therefore aims to explore the relationship between nature-based leisure activities and pro-environmental behaviour using an actor-oriented approach. This study was conducted at Tonto National Forest in Arizona, one of the most visited national forests in the U.S.A., during a period of 12 months. Random sample days and sites were identified for sampling purposes. Sampling took place both at day use and overnight recreation sites.  The sampling yielded a total of 397 questionnaires.  The paper is part of a bigger study and includes the questions related to recreation activities, environmental behaviour, and socio-demographic questions. Based on the literature, outdoor recreation participation has been categorized into three groups: appreciative, consumptive, and exploitative (Geisler et al.1977; Martinson & Wilkening, 1977; Van Liere & Noe, 1981; Jackson, 1986; Thapa, 2010, Barker & Dawson, 2010). The appreciative activities include minimal environmental impact activities such as hiking, camping, picnicking, viewing natural feature, swimming, and canoe-kayaking.  Consumptive activities include fishing, and exploitative activities include higher environmental impact activities including horseback riding, mountain biking, driving for pleasure, off-roading, motor boating, water-skiing, and tubing.  Environmental behaviours are broadly categorized into two groups based on exploratory factor analysis. “Self-centric” behaviour reflects minimizing one’s impact on the environment and “altruistic” behaviour reflects minimizing the impacts of others. The relationship between outdoor recreation participation and environmental behaviour was assessed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results revealed that the participants who engaged in appreciative activities were more altruistic than the exploitative activities participants. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings will be discussed.
Ms Irena Paszkiewicz

Ms Irena Paszkiewicz

Israel

TITLE Food as a leisure social practice among Polish immigrants in the UK AUTHOR : Ms Irena Paszkiewicz               AFFILIATION : University of Bournemouth, United Kingdom        Biography :  completed a Master’s degree at the University of Bournemouth – in School of Tourism.  I have been a teacher in The Cavendish School of English since 2013. Abstract “We do not invite each other simply to eat and drink, but to eat and drink together – ‘Debates among guests’, Plutarch Eating together is a social practice among many cultures. Thus food habits are formed by a broad variety of factors, such as religious, psychological, societal, environmental, economic and political ones. Food choice, methods of preparing, quantity of meals per day, time of eating and the sizes of portions form human eating behaviour. The latter are performed and continued because they are convenient and/or carry meaningful symbols and patterns in a given culture. Therefore, food becomes a vehicle for cultural and social practices also in mobility contexts. Additionally it is a source for well-being of displaced people and it contributes to socialisation practices, namely among immigrant communities.  In my research, I investigate the role food plays both as a social and leisure activity among Polish immigrants in the UK. To achieve the aim, a qualitative approach was used, by the means of interviews. The interviews were transcribed and then coded.  Findings show that the join preparation, cooking and eating of food has been a significant social and leisure activity among Polish immigrants. Sharing a meal with family or friends was considered as a special event that almost took on the form of a ritual or a ceremony and became irreplaceable aspect of all immigrants’ life.  It served as a coping mechanism for creating a sense of comfort, stability and belongings throughout the adjustment process and made the participants feel protected. The dinner table created an environment to conduct conversations, listening and solving conflicts. For many participants the word ‘food’ became synonymous not only with the word ‘home’ but more importantly with the words ‘happiness’ and ‘leisure’.  Conclusions point out that food plays a central role in both the construction and maintenance of social relationships and is fundamental for well-being in immigration contexts under a form not so much of work or survival, but rather a form of leisure for social cohesion.
Prof Lawal M Marafa

Prof Lawal M Marafa

Hong Kong

TITLE : Community perception of Leisure, Recreation and Tourism in Seeking Sustainability in  Hong Kong District AUTHOR : Prof Lawal Mohammed Marafa                                           AFFILIATION : The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong   Biography : Dr. Lawal Marafa, is a professor at the Department of Geography and Resource Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong and Director, Postgraduate programme in Sustainable Tourism. He received the “Exemplary Teacher Award” in 2005, the Royal Belum Inaugural Ecotourism Award, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia, 2007 and served as a facilitator at the Clinton Global Initiative in December 2008. Dr. Marafa has published in numerous journals covering various disciplines depicting versatility in research and academic interest. Such journals include: Parks and Recreation; World Leisure Journal; Journal of Hospitality and Tourism; International Journal of Wilderness; International Journal of Heritage studies; Geography; Acta Acosutica United with Acosutica, Noise Engineering, The Environmentalist, Parks Australia, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, etc. His teaching and research interests include Ecotourism, Leisure, Recreation Planning and Management, Tourism Policy, Tourism and Environment, Tourism Education, and Sustainable Development. ABSTRACT Generally, communities are recognizing the importance of incorporating sustainable practices in their daily activities. These sustainable practices will depend on each community’s values, culture, environmental, and socio-cultural factors.  In addition to other tangible aspects that communities allude to in seeking sustainability, leisure, recreation and tourism studies can provide a foundation of which residents can share their perception of the community and offer insight into how a community is moving toward sustainability. Scholars have indicated that the resident’s perception of leisure, recreation and tourism is intrinsically linked to the development of a sustainable community. Whether this is the case in Hong Kong communities have not been identified. This research will report the roles of leisure, recreation and tourism in Hong Kong communities. A focus group will be conducted in addition to interviews with various groups of people in various communities. Factors and indicators will be identified that will reflect the notion of sustainable communities as they seek sustainability. Results will be considered in several dimensions including the role of space, people’s dynamics, socio-cultural as well as health and wellness of the community.
Mrs Su-Hsin Lee

Mrs Su-Hsin Lee

Taiwan

TITLE : Leisure and health: examining the relationships between greenspaces and health for children AUTHOR : Mrs Lee Su-Hsin         CO-AUTHOR : Jing-Shoung Hou   ABSTRACT             The benefits of greenspace for the promotion of health and well-being are getting important recently. Although many studies have shown that access to parks benefits health and well-being whether having physical activities or just visual perception, but also a considerable proportion of the studies show contradictory results vary (Lachowycz & Jones, 2011). Godbey (2003) found that elementary school children can develop their preferred leisure sport activity through their experiences with a variety of games and sports can maintain an exercise habits into adulthood  This research developed a theoretical framework from a social-ecological model approach to examine the relationships between greenspaces and health for elementary school children. We applied Theory of Planned Behavior (TPA) to understand the effect of children’s attitude (behaviour, normative, and control belief) on their participating leisure sport behaviour intention. The purposes are (1) to investigate the relationships between background variables (gender, skin allergy, participation in sports, and usage in green space) and their BMI, physical and mental health, (2) to investigate the effects of green space in neighborhood on children’s BMI, physical and mental health, (3) to investigate the behaviour, normative and control beliefs of elementary school children to predict their intention behaviour towards green spaces. There are 834 participants from 5th grade of 13 elementary schools in Taipei City. The results showed that girls have significant higher scores on children’s mental health.  (2) Children with more participating in sport activities have higher physical health than children with lower participating in sports. (3) Behavior, control and regulation beliefs could be explained 35.3% variance of Green space usage intention. School and parents can promote students to participate in sport activities to increase their health and develop exercise habits.
Mrs Liandi Slabbert

Mrs Liandi Slabbert

South Africa

Liandi is a masters student at the University of Pretoria with a keen interest in consumer behaviour in the context of nature-based and adventure tourism. She is employed by the South African National Parks where she is tasked with the coordination of tourism research projects on behalf of the organisation.
Ms Lizzy Klijs

Ms Lizzy Klijs

Netherlands

I am a master of Leisure Science student on the NHTV University in Breda, the Netherlands. My main interest rests in scientific (quantitative) sport research, but for obtaining my bachelors degree of Leisure Management I wrote my thesis on Dark Tourism. I am very passionate about promoting Leisure throughout the world, especially the serious side of Leisure (since it is so much more than solely organizing parties as it is often perceived in the Netherlands), and the influences it has on people’s lives.
Ms Nadesh Lauwerijssen and Ms Madelon Jacobs

Ms Nadesh Lauwerijssen and Ms Madelon Jacobs

Netherlands

TITLE : The relation between body dissatisfaction and physical leisure activity AUTHORS :  Nadesh Lauwerijssen and  Madelon Jacobs Biography : Both authors are 3rd -year academic bachelor students of International Leisure Studies at the NHTV University of Applied Sciences. This research is their collaborative thesis graduation project. Nadesh and Madelon both participate in the field-school organised by LARASA before the start of the conference. ABSTRACT The media in the last decade increasingly focussed on thin ideals for women (Grabe,2008) and muscular ideals for men (Leit, Gray and Pope, 2001) across movies, magazines and television programs. In the media thin-idealization and muscular-idealization are consistently rewarded and emphasized. The problem is that these ideals are unattainable for most, creating body dissatisfaction. The question is then, does body dissatisfaction lead to different behavior in physical leisure activity? Since physical leisure activity is a well-known means through which a body can be changed (Silverstein et al., 1986). Leisure can be seen as a venue used for the construction of one’s individual and social identity by expressing those aspects of the individual through lifestyle and consumption (Peters, 2010). The context of life in which individuals are most free to do what they want to do, thus provides them with the opportunity to change themselves to the way they want to be.                 Most academic literature has measured body dissatisfaction subjectively, asking respondents whether they want to lose or gain weight, or remain the same. This research explores whether measuring body dissatisfaction objectively leads to the same results as subjective measures, a priori we do not expect any differences. Objective body dissatisfaction is measured as the discrepancy between the individual’s BMI and their preference for the ideal body. A mixed methods approach will be used. Qualitative methods, interviews, are used to examine the causes and feelings of body dissatisfaction such as self-objectification, thin-internalization, social aversion to fatness and consumerism. Quantitative methods are used to research the results of body dissatisfaction, namely leisure behavior. Leisure behavior is measured with the frequency of participating in physical leisure activities. Intrinsic as well as the extrinsic motivations, and happiness, are used to explain the relationship between body dissatisfaction and physical leisure activity. The data for the quantitative part is secondary data from the International Social Survey Programme, 2007. This research is still in progress, as part of bachelor thesis program, though will be finished before the start of the conference, providing the most recent insights.
Dr Marc-André Lavigne

Dr Marc-André Lavigne

Canada

TITLE : Horseracing as a profession, horseracing as a leisure activity AUTHOR : Dr Marc-André Lavigne                            CO-AUTHORS : Denis Auger,  Romain Roult         Biography : Marc-André Lavigne is a Professor at Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières’ Département d’études en loisir, culture et tourisme. He holds a Ph.D. in public administration (ÉNAP) and specialises in local governance and urban policy analysis. Abstract Once one of the oldest sport spectacles in Canada, the horseracing industry has been in decline for the last several years (Riess, 2014 ; De Melo, 2013 ; Evans, 2012). Public subsidies have been less and less generous, forcing racetracks to close or to significantly reduce their activities. On-line and off-track betting parlours also transformed how the horseracing experience is lived or consumed. Attendance is down and pari-mutuel betting – an important source of revenue – diminishes (Thalheimer, 2012 ;  Evans, 2011 ; McManus, Albrecht & Graham, 2014).  Approaches which consisted in (re)defining horseracing as a leisure experience rather than a gambling industry were used to inspire successful renewed marketing strategies for racetracks. It has been observed that the motivations for spectators are linked to gambling facilities, but also to the quality and diversity of the festive environment before and between races (McManus, Albrecht & Graham, 2014; McManus & Graham, 2012; Schofield & Thompson, 2007; Daniels & Norman, 2005; Nilsson & Nuldén, 2003; Coghlan & Williams, 2001). The overall value of the Standardbred horseracing industry in Canada was estimated to be around 5,7B $CAN (4,3B $ US) in 2012-2013 (Evans, 2012; Quebec Jockey Club, 2014) whose actors include, among others, owners, breeders, trainers, jockeys and track managers. This presentation aims to better understand the motivations, the constraints and the needs of these actors. Our study also tries to get a better understanding of how those different actors conceive of the development of their industry. Finally, this project explores the perceived differences between professionals and amateurs, and how some perceive horseracing as work while others perceive it as a leisure activity. With the collaboration of Standardbred Canada, 8,000 questionnaires were sent electronically to all licenced owners, breeders, trainers, jockeys and track managers in Canada. A series of ANOVAs, correlational and descriptive analysis were conducted to highlight the main similarities and differences, helping to discern how different actors envision the development of the Canadian horseracing industry. This presentation reports the preliminary findings of our project. The main significance of these results for practical implications is twofold. Firstly, there are few sectors where, for a leisure activity, professionals and amateurs interact so closely with each other. For some, horseracing is an important source of revenue and is even considered their main job. For others, horseracing is a hobby rather than an investment. Therefore, this study is original because it aims at better understanding how differently amateurs and professionals perceive their sector. Secondly, the horseracing industry has often been studied as an industry (focusing mainly on betting, racetracks and economic considerations), but rarely from the standpoint of the actors, their motivations, their needs, their obstacles and their vision. We often consider the horseracing sector as monolithic and our study helps to differentiate between the interests at stake.
Ms Marianne Schapmans

Ms Marianne Schapmans

Belgium

WORKSHOP TITLE : Re-authoring the human right for leisure and holiday through harvesting and sharing real-life stories. PRESENTERS : Ms  Marianne Schapmans (Belgium)  Griet Bouwen (Belgium) Chené Swart (South Africa)                     Biographies : Marianne Schapmans graduated in 1995 at the University of Ghent with a master degree Social and Cultural Sciences. At Tourism Flanders she’s responsible in running the Holiday Participation Center. This public-private platform makes holidays accessible for people with a low income. To ensure a dynamic, sustainable and inclusive approach the Holiday Participation Centre collaborates with private organizations and companies. This makes the Flemish social tourism facilities unique. Lowering the financial barrier is one of the concrete actions and therefore collaborations with the tourism industry are set up. Each year, all stakeholders come together to improve the work of the holiday participation center and exchange thoughts and get to know each other’s world.   Chené Swart is the author of the book, Re-authoring the World: The Narrative Lens and Practices for organisations, communities and individuals. Her international training, coaching and consulting practice applies the re-authoring approach in co-constructing alternative narratives that guide personal and communal agency, new ways of doing and being, and transformed lives. Chené is based in South Africa and works with individuals, businesses, and civil society organisations. Chené teaches re-authoring leadership practices as part of the Post Graduate Diploma in Leadership at the University of Stellenbosch Business School and lectures on Narrative coaching in the Advanced Course in Personal and Corporate Coaching at the University of Pretoria. She is also part of the faculty for Duke Corporate Education and a guest lecturer at the Kaospilot School for innovative thought leaders and entrepreneurs in Denmark.   Griet Bouwen is originally a social worker. For over 15 years, she developed and lead social projects for, an organization for regional development in a former mining region in Belgium.  She studied Appreciative Inquiry at Case Western Reserve University in 2008 and got basis in Social constructionism in a 3-days workshop with Kenneth Gergen in Taos. With the partnership ‘De Werf’, she organized Apppreciative inquiry networks and co-hosted the AI-World Conference in Ghent (2012). Since 2012, Griet is a self-employed generative story-worker. She uses principles and practice of AI to find and share news within Stakeholder networks. Her aim is to help organizations and networks flourish, by surfacing stories and news on which leaders can build future.   ABSTRACT   Leisure and holiday are factories of human experiences, memories and lots and lots of stories. We aim for our users to give them the opportunity to bring their selves in new experiences, encounters, discoveries. People often experience they learn more about themselves and human nature by travelling, enjoying cultural beauty, discovering stories of cities, meeting people, learning about history. We, organizers and facilitators of leisure and holidays breath stories. But in our days of hard work, meeting deadlines, organizing and marketing, we tend to forget that this is what it is all about. And when we forget to listen to the stories we lose connection with the ‘why’, the why of ‘Why do we do this work?’ and then: other realities take our attention: financing, practical arrangements, discussions with our partners for example. Even working in a leisure environment can become dull and enervating if losing our connection with the ‘Why’. So, if we want to stay on track with the Why of our work, we need to be very attentive for the stories we generate. Stories about how people’s life changes by experiencing culture, sport and holiday. Stories about why our partners partner with us. Stories about ideas people have to make the future of our work even better than it is already. Stories of how we change the world from all of that.  That is exactly why we – at the Centre for Holiday Participation in Flanders (Belgium) work with stories. We have a dedicated story-digger, -facilitator and –connector working in our network of 150.000 travelers (people in poverty), 1500 social organizations and 650 tourism enterprises. Not for the sake of marketing, but for the sake of the cause, the ‘why’ of our work. We experience that our work is getting better, being surrounded by real-life stories. We feel more engaged, we discover new possibilities through the stories, we are more able to connect resources in our network to come up with new programs and offers for our public. We change the public opinion about holidays for people in poverty. We believe this approach has the power to also inspire you. You can discover the power of stories and find out how you could make a start with finding and sharing them.  And all that: from a perspective of change and development. Because stories are not ‘neutral’, stories are threats of happenings, carefully chosen and woven in a generative language that has the ability to inspire, activate and connect people. There are a couple of principles we honor in this work. We want to share these with you and we want to give you an insight in how to use these to make your own story-adventure work the way you’d love to see it working.  In this 2-hour workshop, we’ll share our story. That is a good starting point to dig deeper in the principles.  You leave the workshop with a broader sense of what stories are, what they do to us as humans, how we create our context while weaving stories into meaning. We discover how stories can help us overcome realities that seem to hold us back from innovation and human connections. We offer you some basic idea’s in re-authoring work, and make a few sidesteps to the world of Appreciative Inquiry and Social Constructionism. And – not at least – you’ll discover first steps you can take yourself to get started on this beautiful journey of stories that reshape your world, and therefore the world of leisure and holidays.
Dr Nicholas Wise

Dr Nicholas Wise

USA

Dr Nicholas Wise is lecturer in international sport, events and tourism management, a member of the sport and identities and culture, consumption and communication research clusters and the programme leader for the MSc courses in International Sport/Events/Tourism Management. His current research focuses on sport and tourism, and his academic background and PhD is in human geography. He brings a strong international perspective to his teaching and the programme informed by scholarly research focusing on the Dominican Republic, Argentina, Croatia and Serbia. He has published across several disciplines and his current academic interests deal with interdisciplinary approaches to regeneration, place image/identity, sense of community and destination competitiveness. Originally from Pennsylvania in the USA, Nicholas has travelled extensively in over 80 countries as a student, an instructor, for research/fieldwork, to present at conferences, as a volunteer and for leisure. In September 2014 he co-organized the Regeneration, Enterprise, Sport and Tourism (REST) workshop that attracted academics from more than 10 countries to GCU. Also in 2014 he spoke at conferences in Panama, Croatia, Scotland, England, Serbia and Oman.
Mrs Nicoline de Heus

Mrs Nicoline de Heus

Netherlands

TITLE : Innovating Leisure Education through the Intercultural Classroom            AUTHOR : Mrs Nicoline de Heus AFFILIATION :    NHTV University of Applied Sciences, Breda,  Netherlands                             Biography : I am a lecturer at NHTV University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands, where I develop, organize and provide education on Intercultural Competence and Intercultural Management at the Academy for Leisure. Furthermore I am responsible for the development and execution of the professional development module in cross cultural skills for teachers working in the English taught study programmes at NHTV and to coach colleagues in implementing the concept of the International Classroom in their educational practice. My research interests include Intercultural Dialogue, International Classroom and Intercultural Communication. Currently I am conducting a PhD research in which I explore how to transform the educational practice of a leisure study programme into an Intercultural Classroom using a participatory action research approach.   ABSTRACT   This contribution provides insight in the preliminary findings of a pending doctorate research on how to transform the educational practices of an international leisure study programme into an Intercultural Classroom. The rationale of this research lies in the recognition that the leisure field and its phenomena are being shaped by the network society (Richards, 2010, Castells, 2011). Leisure studies and practices can be characterised as interdisciplinary, complex and transsectoral (Rojeck, Shaw and Veal, 2006).  Moreover, due to globalisation the “local-global balance” (Rojeck, Shaw and Veal, 2006, p.19) in the leisure field is exciting, but challenging. As a result there is demand for professionals in the leisure field who are able to find adequate solutions for specific context related problems in the play field of international/multicultural globalized network societies. Consequently our education needs to adapt and innovate in order to educate these future professionals, our students. To investigate its design the concept of Internationalisation at Home (Nilsson, 1999) has been made central, which has been reframed in this study as the Intercultural Classroom to ensure the inclusion of  cultural diversity present within the context of national borders. At heart of Intercultural Classroom are intercultural engagement processes, through which knowledge, ideas and theories from multiple cultural contexts are shared, explored and scrutinized in order to generate new collaborative knowledge and action for the professional practice (Leask, 2012; Gesche & Makeham, 2008; Singh & Shrestha, 2008). However the emergence of these kind of  processes are not self‐evident (Allan, 2003; Platenkamp, 2007). It requires strategic and systematic designed interventions (Leask, 2012) of co-creative types of learning through which the cultural diverse backgrounds are used as part of the curriculum design. Moreover, lecturers need to be involved in designing these processes and are required to have intercultural perspectives themselves (Leaks, 2012). On top, it requires a critical stance  towards the nature of the curriculum and the paradigms on which it is based (Mestenhauser, 1998). As  the unconscious underlying views lecturers have on teaching and cultural diversity  impact how an Intercultural Classroom  is put into practice (Reid & Hellstén, 2008; Warren, 2005). Consequently this study has taken a participatory action research approach making the lecturers of the international leisure study programme the key participants. The study is grounded  in the theoretical framework of social constructionism (Lock & Strong, 2010; McNamee, 2010) taken the stance that the fundamental principles which shape our educational practices are a social and cultural construction (Grundy, 1987). Moreover it incorporates a scrutinizing perspective about traditional truths and assumptions which tend to be passively accepted (Camargo-Borges & Rasera, 2013). Therefore in this study lecturers are not only included but have become critical investigators of their own educational practice in order to promote change. The contribution to this conference will be to provide insight into the preliminary findings what lecturers of leisure  have identified as being prohibitive and enabling in transforming their current educational practices into an Intercultural Classroom.
Mrs Nuria Jaumot-Pascual

Mrs Nuria Jaumot-Pascual

United States of America

TITLE : Gender and Leisure among Older Adults. A Mixed-Methods Approach AUTHOR : Mrs Nuria Jaumot-Pascual                     CO-AUTHORS : Douglas A. Kleiber, M. Jesus Monteagudo, Jaime Cuenca               AFFILIATION : University of Georgia, United States of America   Biography : Nuria Jaumot-Pascual is a doctoral student in Research and Evaluation Methodologies at the University of Georgia. In addition to her doctoral studies, she has worked for the last seven years as a Senior Research Associate at TERC, an organization that focuses on STEM learning research, curriculum, and policy development, where she does research in informal math learning and the career paths in engineering careers of women of color. She has over 20 years of experience as a professional development provider, workshop facilitator, informal educator, translator, and researcher, all in the context of out-of-school education and early learning. ABSTRACT Vital events, such as widowhood and retirement, are broadly accepted as points of inflexion in the lives of older adults (Antonovsky & Sagy, 1990). These events often act as true engines of change and opening up toward leisure (Kleiber & Nimrod, 2008; Nimrod & Janke, 2011). However, the changes older adults go through differ according to gender. In the case of women, whether and how women have been employed outside of the household and at what moment in life they become widows, both have an impact on how and when developmental tasks are triggered (Cusack, 1994; Gibson, Ashton-Shaffer, Green, & Autry, 2003/4; Gibson, Ashton-Shaffer, Green, & Corbin, 2002; Henderson & Allen, 1991; Hurd, 1999; Lee and Bakk, 2001; Lopata, 1973). In addition, the ethic of care is a key constraining factor that limits women’s leisure at any age (Henderson & Allen, 1991). In the case of men, their leisure trajectories in older age often include continuity with previous pursuits in life and are colored by different conditions after widowhood than those of women (Carr & Wortman, 2005; Genoe & Singleton, 2006; Van den Hoonaard, 2010).  For the analysis of the study’s data, we used theoretical constructs of retirement and widowhood as developmental task triggers (Antonovsky & Sagy, 1990; Lopata, 1973), the ethic of care as a constraining factor in women’s leisure (Henderson & Allen, 1991), innovation in older age (Nimrod & Kleiber, 2007), and the rates at which women and men volunteer (Rotolo & Wilson, 2007). To better understand the meaningful leisure of older residents in Northern Spain and the differences according to gender, we did an exploratory sequential mixed methods study (Creswell, 2015) that included semi-structured interviews (n=20) and a questionnaire (n=755). To conduct the mixed methods analysis, we used a joint display (Fetters, Curry, & Creswell, 2013; Onwuegbuzie & Dickinson, 2008) of qualitative and quantitative findings. The integration of both types of findings revealed a great degree of convergence between the two sets of data. The main points of convergence were: retirement and widowhood as developmental tasks for older adults, with adjustment to retirement being the primary developmental task for men and both widowhood and retirement being so for women; older women being more innovative than men in their leisure; and an ethic of care acting as a constraint to leisure for older women. Volunteering was an area where the data diverged, and where the use of mixed methods was key to disentangle the reasons for this diversion. Even though the use of mixed methods is becoming more common in leisure studies, mixed methods research that truly integrates quantitative and qualitative inquiry and the use of joint displays are rare (e.g., Erpestad, 2013; Zandstra, 2012). From a methodological perspective, this session is our attempt to contribute a quality example of both to the leisure studies literature.
Ms Pam Kappelides

Ms Pam Kappelides

Australia

TITLE : Camp based volunteers: Psychological contracts and intentions to volunteer AUTHOR : Ms Pam Kappelides                  CO-AUTHOR : Dr Erica Randle      Biography : Pam’s areas of expertise include volunteer management, disability and minority groups and the impact of sport participation and development in the community. Her most recent research focuses on the Psychological Contract of Volunteers in the Not-for-profit sector and the development of a resource and website for volunteers working in the sport and recreation sector with Sport and Recreation Victoria.   ABSTRACT   The objective of this study was to investigate the nature of the psychological contract (PC) developed by episodic and traditional volunteers and the relationship between PC and intentions to continue volunteering in camp-based leisure organisations in Australia. The nature of the volunteer experience means that volunteers will tend to develop a social exchange relationship with their ‘employer’. Due to the absence of financial payment for volunteers, the understanding of their PC may provide a powerful tool to help leisure organisations understand and manage the behaviour of volunteers, including enhancing their ability to retain their services. Volunteers will not have any expectations for financial compensation; however their PC may compromise expectations that their needs and motives for volunteering will be met. Contrary to the bulk of studies examining the motives for volunteering (Clary, et al., 1992), literature and research on the PC of volunteers is rare (Liao-Troth, 2005) and as such this research extends our knowledge of volunteering in leisure organisations.  A qualitative research design was used in this study. The use of 40 in-depth interviews was used to explain the differences in the nature of the PC that existed between episodic and traditional volunteers and their respective organisations and individuals’ intentions to continue volunteering.   The study found that volunteers’ PC is developed through the initial interview or exposure to a social cue or external message that attracts them to the organisation to volunteer and that the culture of the organisation had an influence on the PC of volunteers especially after they had completed a numbers of hours with their organisation. The volunteers’ previous experience with volunteering did influence their PC with their current organisation; they brought the expectations of their past experience with them and compared them to the current experience, making assumptions and comparisons about their current role. Episodic volunteers reported that their expectations around training and induction, communication and supervisor support were not often met compared to the experience of traditional volunteers. Intentions to continue volunteering were enhanced by (1) the development of feelings of importance and belonging to the group (campers or volunteers) and not particularly the organisation, (2) enabling volunteers to achieve personal and professional growth, (3) ensuring equality amongst paid staff and volunteers. The paper will conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications for PC amongst volunteers in leisure focused organisations and their management.
Mr Patrick M Zimu

Mr Patrick M Zimu

South Africa

TITLE : Public Leisure Facilities, Participation in and Delivery of Leisure Services AUTHOR : Mr Patrick Mkhanyiseli Zimu                                CO-AUTHOR : Mrs S Naidoo        Biography : Mr. Patrick Zimu is a lecturer in the discipline of Biokinetics, Exercise and Leisure Sciences. He obtained his Bachelor of Sport Science degree at UKZN, continuing on to Honours in Sport Science Recreation before completing his Masters in the same discipline. Zimu lectured at the Durban University of Technology’s Sport Studies Department from 2012 before returning to lecture at UKZN in 2015. His research interests include leisure and health promotion, evidence-based practice and leisure and environment. ABSTRACT Public leisure facilities (PLF) are developed to provide opportunities to participate in leisure time activities. The availability of PLF influences individuals and groups behaviour and decision to participate in leisure time activities. However, if PLF are insufficiently provided for, the prospect of participating in leisure time activities is reduced, and people will remain fairly inactive and unhealthy. Leisure time activities are important, and everyone should be afforded an opportunity to choose and participate in their activity of choice. Municipalities around world therefore face increasing demands by the public to provide more leisure opportunities to promote health and social well-being. Participation and delivery of leisure services is however influenced by the implementation of an organisational policy, the availability and design of the built environments, and the motivation of the individual to participate. The built environment domain include the facilities such as sports fields, open spaces, parks, and trails designed for leisure-time activities. According to (CSIR, 2012), “leisure facilities must be provided spatially in a manner that is rationally based on where people live and where they can best access the facilities”. The availability of leisure facilities and spaces afford residents an opportunity to play; and the municipality a place to deliver organized leisure and recreation programs (Cohen et al. 2007). Therefore, in an effort to create more leisure opportunities and enhanced community participation, the provision of relevant supportive facilities within the local communities is always expected. An investigation was conducted at Ethekwini Metropolitan Municipality to assess the availability, distribution and utilization of leisure facilities. The results showed a major discrepancy in the provision and distribution of leisure facilities across regions, districts and residential areas. Several structural constraints were discovered which limit the government involvement and maximal provision of leisure time opportunities. It was also discovered that the absence of a variety of facilities, poor condition of the facilities and inaccessibility of some facilities limit activity choice and participation of the residents. Impending financial cutbacks and reduced budget allocations, together with limited facilities make the delivery of leisure services to meet this public demand a difficult task.
Prof Ping Yu

Prof Ping Yu

Taiwan

Ph.D. Recreation and Leisure Studies, New York University, USA Professor and Program director of Graducate Institure of Adult Education, NKNU, Taiwan editor of Journal of Outdoor Recreation Study, Taiwan editor of Tourism and Leisure Studies, Taiwan editor of Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Taiwan Chief editor of Annals of Recreation and Leisure Studies, Taiwan(2007-2010) research interests: adult playfulness and creativity, elder’s leisure and health, leisure education, wellness tourism
Mr Rafael Frois

Mr Rafael Frois

Brazil

TITLE : FIFA’S WORLD CUP 2014: VOLUNTEERS’ PROFILE OF BELO HORIZONTE – BRAZIL AUTHOR : Dr Rafael Frois             CO-AUTHORS : Sheylazarth Ribeiro,  Kátia Lemos, Allana Scopel               AFFILIATION : Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil  Biography : PhD in Sport Science by the Porto University. Post- PhD in Sociology of Sport by the Lusophone University of Humanities and Technologies. Associate Professor at the Federal University of Minas Gerais – Brazil . Professor and advisor accredited in the Interdisciplinary Leisure Studies Program at the Federal University of Minas Gerais – Brazil. Leader of Studies group of Sociology, Pedagogy of sports and leisure (GESPEL) – Brazil. ABSTRACT The realization of the FIFA world cup in 2014, mobilized different sectors of society, among the involved people, the volunteers stand out the most, to assist  tourists on game  days. The constant presence,  testimonials, reports and work that revolved around volunteers prompted the  researchers to investigate the roles assigned to them.  The study was aimed to trace the profile of the volunteer of the Fifa world cup in Belo Horizonte. The organization committee of the event received applications from 3500 volunteers. However, only 1400 were selected  to be trained as volunteers, two months before the start of the event. A questionnaire was used to collect data. The responses  were captured and  statistically analyzed using the excel software. The results highlight the motivation, the difficulties and joys experienced as volunteers during the mega event.
Ms Rebekkah Middleton

Ms Rebekkah Middleton

Australia

TITLE : An effective leisure program for older people with diabetes AUTHOR : Mrs Rebekkah Middleton      CO-AUTHORS : Lorna Moxham; Dominique Parrish AFFILIATION :    University of Wollongong, Australia  Biography : Rebekkah is a PhD student at the University of Wollongong, Australia. She has a strong interest in the health and wellbeing of others and how exercise and health promotion impact individuals. ABSTRACT Diabetes is a prevalent and chronic disease both in Australia and internationally, affecting 347 million people worldwide. Estimates suggest that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death by 2030 (WHO 2015). There is strong evidence to suggest that physical activity improves diabetes outcomes by assisting glucose control, promoting weight management and preventing related complications (Hu et al., 2014), as well as improving an individual’s overall health and wellness (Law et al., 2013). Despite the evidence, there is reportedly still a lack of compliance and adherence to exercise regimens by people with diabetes (Jennings et al., 2013). An important measure in addressing this deficiency is to establish why people with diabetes join exercise and health promotion leisure programs. Gaining this understanding can valuably inform and guide the design, promotion and delivery of future leisure programs in a specific, targeted, and disease appropriate manner.  This paper will present findings from a research study, undertaken in Australia, to explore the meaning that older people with diabetes attribute to being involved in an exercise and health promotion leisure program. A qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological methodology was adopted to identify what participants perceived was meaningful to them about the experience of being involved in a leisure program. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with participants following the facilitation of a leisure intervention, which incorporated individualized physical activity and lifestyle education over a 12 week period. The primary goal of the intervention was to enhance the health and wellness of people with diabetes.  A number of themes emerged from the analysis of participant interview and Focus Group transcripts. The overarching theme, and critical point of difference, identified in this research study, of effective leisure programs for health and wellness purposes, is person-centeredness. This essence of meaning, person-centered program efficacy is explored as a key to ensuring the effective design, promotion and delivery of leisure programs for older people with diabetes.  Since determination of an effective leisure program can only be established by those involved, the expertise of the participants on their own journey is recognised throughout this presentation by privileging their voices and presenting their words, thereby allowing the findings to be contextualised through the lens of the participants. The identified essence of person-centered program efficacy is examined from a strengths-based perspective. In keeping with this approach, the presentation will focus on and discuss enablers to effective leisure programs rather than barriers. It is anticipated that exploration of these findings can lead to better understanding how participant engagement particularly of older people, in other health promotion leisure programs can be enhanced.
Ms Regiane Cristina Galante

Ms Regiane Cristina Galante

Brazil

TITLE : SESC: SPACE FOR LEISURE AND SOCIABILITY IN WORLD CUP 2014 AUTHOR : Ms Regiane Cristina Galante                 AFFILIATION :    SESC, Sao Paulo, Brazil  Biography :Degree in Physical Education (UFSCar/1997), postgraduate in Leisure Studies (UFMG/2000) and Master of Education (UFSCar/2006). MBA in Project Management (FGV/2011). Doctorship in Physical Education (FEF/Unicamp). Technical Assistant at SESC São Paulo, in Department of Physical Activity and Sports Development, acting in the management of Sports Projects and Leisure. ABSTRACT SESC is a private, nationwide, non-profit institution, which aims to contribute to the well-being and improvement of the quality of life of workers in trade, goods and services, tourism, their families and the community. Favorable to Joffre Dumazedier ideas (1974), SESC assumes in its activities, the leisure while an experience linked to free time. Beyond the rest and fun, leisure at SESC is seen as a time for cultural and social development. In the state of São Paulo / Brazil, 32 Cultural and Sport Centers perform actions tied to the cultural contents of leisure, including physical and sporting development. In this area, it is sought to the expansion of physical and sporting experiences, and raising awareness of the importance of leisure activities in daily life. Among the implemented projects, are projects that value, in addition to practice, symbolic aspects that surround the universe of sport, recognizing it as a component of the society’s culture. In this context, in 2014, took place the Project – SESC in the Cup, motivated by the FIFA World Cup in Brazil, with the aim of presenting soccer while Brazilian cultural manifestation. During the project were carried out several activities, including the broadcast of the matches. Thus, based on the hypothesis that people would go to SESC during matches because they consider it a social space, and that SESC Units are a “circuit” of leisure in the city of São Paulo, I watched the broadcast of the first three games of Brazil in different units: SESC Pompeia (West Zone), SESC Belenzinho (East Zone), and SESC Consolação (Downtown). The method used for the study had ethnographic inspiration, and the main discussion presented concerns two categories of analysis proposed by Magnani (1998) in his research trajectory in Urban Anthropology: “piece” and “circuit”. Observations and the collection of ten interviews were conducted, by asking attendees the reasons that led them to be there, and if they attend SESC for other activities and why. The answers were recorded on audio and later transcribed, and notes were taken on a logbook. All respondents usually attend SESC to other activities on a regular basis. In addition, with regard to going to SESC to watch Brazil’s matches, the issue of “environment” appeared in almost every speech, featuring SESC as a “quiet”, “pleasant” and “comfortable” place. From the responses of the subjects, we can say that SESC is valued as a place for meeting and sociability. So as a leisure equipment in the city, SESC is characterized as a collective space in which circulate different social actors, who take ownership and make it their “piece”. Further, once the circuit provides for certain uses of space and urban equipment, we can understand the various units of SESC in the city of São Paulo as a leisure equipment circuit, which receives various audiences, that attend it in order to develop their cultural practices and also their sociability.
Prof Richard Ogola Bele Makopondo

Prof Richard Ogola Bele Makopondo

Kenya

TITLE : Obama Kogelo Community Cultural Festival: Bungled Opportunities AUTHOR : Prof Richard Ogola Bele Makopondo                AFFILIATION : BIOGRAPHY : Professor Makopondo holds a PhD in Leisure Studies, an MA in Recreation and Leisure Studies (Tourism Management), and a BSc. in Hospitality Management. His research interests include collaboration and partnerships; leisure, recreation and tourism and transformation; sustainability in hospitality, outdoor recreation and tourism; ICT in hospitality, tourism and higher education.   ABSTRACT Globally, festivals have been recognized as an expressive way to celebrate glorious heritage, culture and traditions (http://www.hattours.com). Festivals have been defined as social gatherings for purposes of celebration or thanksgiving (Waterman, 1998); arts events, community celebrations, or political and commercial events designed to promote a particular idea or specific products (Richards, 2007); or celebrations of something the local community wishes to share and which involves the public as participant in the experience (South Australian Tourism Commission, 1997, p.2).  Increasingly, festivals and special events are promoted as viable tools for socioeconomic development, intercultural and international understanding. Following the historic election of Senator Barak Obama, the son of a first generation black immigrant from Kenya as the first African American President of the United States of America, the clan of his father decided to organize an inaugural festival in commemoration. It was intended that this would be an annual event. Unfortunately the Obama Kogelo Community Cultural Festival has not survived beyond the third year. This study applied inter-organizational collaboration, partnership and stakeholder theories to investigate the process through which the festival was organized, the keys to its success during the first and second year, as well as the opportunities presented to develop and promote the festival and the village as a destination within the Western Kenya tourism circuit. The study adopted grounded theory principles including in- depth personal interviews and document textual analysis techniques to systematically gather and analyze the data (Shaw and Trussell, 2009). Using a deductive approach, the data were analyzed qualitatively using the objectives of the study as the basis for searching and coding emergent patterns, and to develop broad themes. The results indicate that the festival was initiated and organized through a collaborative approach involving the national government, international agencies, the county government, Kogelo Community leaders, Obama family, non-governmental organizations and private sector sponsors. Seven key factors contributed to the success of the cultural festival in the first two years. However, the festival was also marred with major challenges and issues that resulted in its failure in the third year. These included lack of an official festival management organization with a clear vision, cultural beliefs and intra-clan squabbles, struggle over control of funds, poor management and lack of accountability, and the lack of leadership and support from the county government. Based on these findings, the study recommends strategies to improve collaboration, revitalize and enhance the prospects of developing a more successful cultural festival in the future.
Mrs Roshni Mehta

Mrs Roshni Mehta

South Africa

TITLE : Entertainment Districts to resolve Durban’s Nightlife challenge AUTHOR : Mrs Roshni Mehta                     AFFILIATION : Tourism Durban, Ethekwini Municipality   Biography : Roshni Mehta holds a Masters in Business Management from the Buckinghamshire University College and has over 20 years experience in the field of research.  She specializes in Tourism research, undertaking studies that will benefit Durban’s tourism sector in the long term.  Studies that she undertook include Durban’s route development in Townships, The Status of Durban’s Nightlife and the way forward, Medical tourism in Kwa Zulu Natal and Religious Tourism in Kwa Zulu Natal.  She also coordinated the Urban Strategy for the three city’s network – that is determining an urban link in terms of knowledge and information sharing among the Cities of Cape Town, Johannesburg and Durban.  She published the first tourism statistics brochure for the City in 2014 and also undertakes the socio-economic impact studies, including events for the City.  In terms of Product Quality of business in the City, she has undertaken 2 capacity building programmes in partnership with National Department of Tourism.  Two programmes is the audit of the Universal Accessibility in Durban’s tourist attractions and an audit of energy efficiency and cleaner house productions in B&B’s. ABSTRACT Investors have learned that a successful district is a mixed use model containing clubs, boutique stores, galleries, restaurants and more. The model has been successfully implemented throughout the world like Dayton’s Oregon District, Cincinnati’s Over the Rhine or The Banks projects are very successful examples. These cities have learned the financial value and economic impact of the creative class as well as the relevance in quality of life for its residents and tourists alike.   The financial impact on local economies has been well documented and the focus of studies for decades. Statistically the arts and entertainment ideology is perfectly suited for areas that are experiencing stubborn economic growth. What we’re learning is that industrial communities throughout the rust belt who’ve made the transition have done so with amazing success both economically as well as with job creation.  May 6th, 2012, the Sunday Tribune newspaper headlines state: Is Durban SA’s snooze city?  The writer indicates that Durban goes to sleep by 10pm.  South Africa’s third-largest city, Durban attracts the lion’s share of South Africa’s domestic tourists and offers a completely unique atmosphere. Durban has a mix of interesting products that if properly packaged and developed, will increase the right mix of visitors to Durban, increase economic spend and ultimately increase job creation.  The proposition is to foster a natural emergence of character products in a safe setting for the visitor and the community at large. The areas identified are already developed but need to be linked, rezoned and revitalized so that products within these areas are utilized to its full potential in a safe environment.  A small percentage of product development is required for the ultimate success of the Entertainment District. The vision being Durban’s mixed entertainment district, with one admission for all and purpose of the study is to foster a natural emergence of character in a safe setting for the discerning tourist and the community. Stakeholder partnerships between the business and the City is key to the successful implementation of the study.
Dr Rubeena Partab

Dr Rubeena Partab

TITLE : The inconvenient interrogation:  Of consequences that challenge choices. AUTHOR : Rubeena Partab  WORKSHOP Brickman and Campbell’s 1971 concept of the “hedonic treadmill” is a salient pervasive narrative of whether we continue to spin in the spot, to remain in the same place? This interactive workshop provides a space to interrogate such and explore the empty rhetoric that popular mentality privileges, when contemplating the synergy of body, mind and community.  The following thematic contentious areas will be comprehensively unpacked as a stimulus for the workshop:

  • How have we relegated play and leisure to a lower order, where negligible time is devoted to inculcating a spirit of community?
  • Where are the spaces for reasserting the intersectioanality of health, happiness and leisure?
  • Are our initial choices myopic or is there a definitive synergy with logical consequences? How then do we potentially innovative around these contributory factors?
  • Can we identify the incremental sustaining benefits of inculcating leisure into the matrix of our lived realities?
  • Are the cost –benefits of happiness compassionately found within our own “ emotional climate change” (Baylis 2009:250)
  • How do we habituate, harmonizing and sustain happiness in the reality of our lives?
  • Is there space, for a prevailing critical ethos on collateral damages when consequences challenge our choices as we interact with our world?

• Being cognizant of the cautionary adage “if you don’t play now, you will pay later” (Kubler-Ross & Kessler 2001), which priorities require purposeful re-prioritizing?

Prof Russell Hoye

Prof Russell Hoye

Australia

TITLE : The Social Value of an Indigenous Community Sport Club AUTHOR : Prof Russell Hoye       CO-AUTHORS Dr Erica Randle; Pam Kappelides   Biography : Russell’s areas of expertise include corporate governance, volunteer management, public policy and the impact of sport participation and organisations in the community. Russell is the editor of the Sport Management Series produced by Routledge UK, a member of the editorial boards for Sport Management Review and the International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, and Past President of the Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand (SMAANZ). ABSTRACT The Rumbalara Football Netball Club (RFNC) is an Australian Rules football club located in a regional area within the state of Victoria, Australia. The Club is an inclusive Indigenous community owned and controlled organisation, one of only two in the state, and provides a social gathering place for the local indigenous community. The aim of this research was to explore the social value of the club in terms of the benefits it delivers to individual members, to the indigenous community, and to the wider community in which it operates. This paper includes  a review of the range of methods available to determine the social value of community sport; specifically its contribution to social, community and health impacts. Amongst the 40 possible methods to assess social impact such as Social Accounting and Audit (SAA) and Soft Outcomes Universal Learning (SOUL) (Stevenson et al, 2010), the use of Social Return On Investment (SROI) has become increasingly popular amongst policymakers, government agencies and evaluators (Maier et al., 2014). Developed in the United Kingdom, the SROI has been promoted by government and assessed within academic literature as a method for quantifying the social, environmental and economic value of the third sector, including sport organisations (King, 2014). A particular focus of the paper will be to explore the merits and limitations of the Social Return on Investment (SROI) approach as a suitable method for this value assessment. There is minimal quantifiable evidence around the social value of community sporting clubs in Australia; of that which does exist, little attention has been paid to the specific benefits an Aboriginal run community sporting club could deliver to the indigenous and wider community. This research adopted the Social Return on Investment (SROI) approach in an attempt to begin to fill this gap. The research design took a case study approach with data collected through semi-structured in-depth face-to-face interviews with members of the sporting club itself (administrators, players, sponsors and general supporters), and with community stakeholders external to the club (health providers, local government, law enforcement, and other sporting organisations within the area). Data was analysed and coded into the SROI framework which included mapping the resources, activities, and outputs of the RFNC. The final stage of the analysis (to be completed by the end of 2015) will involve assigning a financial value to the resources and outputs. The study identified a variety of benefits were generated through the club’s operations; enhancing the sense of individual member’s aboriginal identity, assisting to share and preserve aboriginal culture, supporting efforts to combat negative perceptions of Indigenous Australians, and providing role models and access to Indigenous leaders, particular to younger children who do not have strong parental support and are exposed to issues such as family violence and substance abuse. These outcomes were facilitated through the club’s delivery of sport participation opportunities in football and netball, and specific programs aimed at improving employment opportunities and education support for club members.”
Mrs Sarit Okun

Mrs Sarit Okun

Israel

TITLE: Online Religious Communities a Leisure Activity, a Spiritual Activity, or Both? AUTHOR : Ms Sarit Okun              AFFILIATION : Ben Gurion University, Israel   Biography: BA- Communications and Journalism at Sapir College, Cum Laude MA- Media Studies at Ben Gurion University, Cum Laude. Lives on Kibbutz Alumim, a cooperative, agricultural, religious kibbutz and part of the team creating, developing and presenting Israel Seminars programming. ABSTRACT There are many active “”Online Religious Communities”” from which we can learn about the offline and online leisure activities of different religious audiences. Applying a netnographic approach, this case-study research aimed to explore the leisure culture of one such online community, the Bechadrei Charedim forum, which targets orthodox Jewish internet users. Five months of observation and analysis of 3,000 online discussions led to the identification of four main characteristics of that community:  Personal and group identity games, indicating that this religious community maintained ‘relative anonymity’, while exchanging clear messages as to their beliefs and life styles and personalities;  ‘Religious-secular discussion’ including nine major topics: Current affairs, leisure, “Halacha” (religion and its statutes), politics, factional differences of opinion, life cycle events, orthodox identity, health, and technical-technological;  Teeming online leisure activities, in which participants engage in writing, respond, express opinions and give witness about events.; and  Unique religious expressiveness manifested by the use of religious terminology to express emotions and thoughts. Mutual criticism, which was observed often, sometimes resulted in insulting exchanges, but it was clear that the orthodox community sought to induce community solidarity and caring for others as expressed by the biblical commandments on the appropriate behaviours between man and man. The findings indicate that online religious communities provide their members with both a leisure activity and spiritual enrichment. While the forums do aim to enable serious discussion of religious topics, conflicts and quandaries, members also use them as a social sphere, where they can chat about non-religious issues, express their personality, skills and opinions, and even play games with their online anonymous peers.
Mrs Sheetal Bhoola

Mrs Sheetal Bhoola

South Africa

TITLE : Towards developing a culinary tourism destination in Durban AUTHOR : Mrs Sheetal Bhoola                                       Biography : Part time lecturer at UKZN, Damelin and Varsity College.  In 2004, was awarded a scholarship to participate in the Global Studies Masters programme, which offered me the opportunity to be at student at Jawarlal Nehru University in New Delhi, India and the University of Albert Ludwigs in Freiburg, Germany. Throughout my years of studying, I have been involved in educating and tutoring students within the university and at other institutions.  In 2004, I completed a research project for the Kwa-Zulu Natal Department of Economic Development and Tourism in conjunction with the Industrial Labour and Organizational Research Department at the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal. Graduated with a PhD in 2016. ABSTRACT This paper aims to explore a framework in culinary tourism as a means to strengthen tourism in the city of Durban, South Africa. ‘Culinary Tourism’ was founded by Lucy Long in the year 1998. Long (2004) believes that food is central to a travel experience and it can be used as a vehicle to access other cultures, and that we do not literally have to leave home to ‘travel” (Long, 2004; 1). Lisa Goldman acknowledges as well that culinary travel is popular because it connects us to the way we live, perhaps to family histories or the origins and cultures of another country (Goldman cited in Roberti, 2008: 1).  Contemporary literature on Culinary Tourism has not produced an adequately acceptable definition to embrace the concept. The view as a form of ‘shock treatment’ in Culinary Tourism is defined for the purposes of this research as a ‘foreigner’s indulgence’ in localised types of cuisine during travel. “Food can then carry us into other realms of experience, allowing us to be tourists while staying at home” (Long, 2004: 1). Long (2004) further discusses that there is much more to tasting new, exotic and authentic foods of different cultures. Instead it is all about the perception of the otherness and the realisation of something being rather different from the usual.  Three areas in Durban were namely, Florida Road (the mid-town area), the Durban Beachfront (often referred to as “The Golden Mile”), and Lagoon Drive and Chartwell Drive in Umhlanga Rocks. Coincidently at the time of my research process, the FIFA  World Cup of 2010 was about to take place, which has contributed significantly to my sample group of individuals. This study began from the hypothesis that South Africa has yet to use culinary tourism as a tool to market itself as a destination.  Other supportive objectives of the study involved the investigation of whether the Durban’s cuisine is marketed adequately and the identification of the variations in cuisine types that are available in Durban. The study also pays attention to ways in which Durban can serve as an attraction for local and overseas tourists and the preferences of tourists of different nationalities. The perceptions and responses from Durban citizens, local and international tourists have been central towards understanding the value of local cuisine and its influence on Durban as a destination. Data revealed that international tourists had a preference towards a variety of local seafood and steaks, whereas local citizens of Durban had an emphatic love for both varieties of Indian cuisine. The perceptions of the culinary specialists interviewed were of value despite their beliefs being somewhat similar and opposing to what the data revealed. The overall study exposed that there was more than one variation of cuisines that could serve as an attraction in conjunction with existing Durban Tourism initiatives. Durban curries together with these foods can serve as an attraction to the city.
Prof Shui-Liang Yu

Prof Shui-Liang Yu

Taiwan

TITLE : Environmental Governance and Development of Sustainable Tourism AUTHOR : Prof SHUI-LIANG YU                 CO-AUTHOR : Dr Nien-Chan Chu               Biography : My name is Shui-Liang Yu.  I received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in wildlife from University of Nebraska. USA in 1992 and 1997, respectively. In 1999, I joined the faculty of National Penghu University of SScience and Technology (NPU), where I am currently a professor of Department of Tourism and leisure . My research interests are in the areas of island tourism, ecotourism, and narture resources management. ABSTRACT International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) definition of protected areas is: the sea or land which is protected by laws or other efficient management methods for preserving and maintaining its biodiversity or related culture resources. The ocean is always the essential source for living to Penghu Islands; it also develops the unique historical culture. The rich resources in the ocean make the fishing industry become Penghu Islands’ economic arteries. Nevertheless, the resources of fishing industry have been decreasing since early 90s due to plenty of reasons. This phenomenon has changed the industry and demographic structure as well. Because of the issue of ocean resources sharply cut back and the trend of international conservation, Penghu County protected areas are mostly for protecting the island habitat. After, the restrictions for sea area are brought in into the marine protected areas concept, such as, restriction of fish body length for fishing, restriction of fishing gears and fishing methods, and restriction of fishing season. The local community rights and interests must be considered as well when it comes to the delimitation and management of protected areas, to make the best result. Since offshore island is small and with weak ecosystem, the conservation thing is especially important to it. The disappearance of wetlands means the extinction of habitat to ecology and the cut off of the future for a valued environmental education to human beings. Hence, this research studied the conservation management plan for the national Chingluo wetland in Penghu. With the conservation experiences from nature reserve, using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to see if it is workable to apply the existing non-consumptive ecotourism in order to increase local residence revenue and build a new management pattern. Operating the industry by methods which meet the ecological principles, archiving the goal of conservation, and proposing specific supporting measures related to wetland neighbouring community engagement, to create the sustainable and competitive operation patterns and development strategies for important island wetlands related leisure, conservation and fisheries and farmers associations.
Mrs Sonia Vaillancourt

Mrs Sonia Vaillancourt

Canada

TITLE : The Quebec Facilitation Training Program in Leisure and Sport   AUTHOR : Mrs Sonia Vaillancourt            ADDILIATION : Training Program Facilitation in Leisure and Sports du Québec,  Quebec Leisure Council, Canada   Biography : Sonia Vaillancourt is the development director at the Quebec Leisure Council in particular for the Training Program Facilitation in Leisure and Sports du Québec. Ms. Vaillancourt is delegated to boards of directors of the International Social Tourism Organisation, the Chantier de l’économie sociale, it has been co-head of research group leisure and tourism office of the Community-University Research Alliance on the Social Economy.  She has worked for over twenty years in leisure associations with local and national. She majored in leisure, communication and MBA.   ABSTRACT   The Quebec Facilitation Training Program in Leisure and Sport includes three levels: the Diploma of Ability to Facilitation Functions (DAFF), which is the Basic Training in Facilitation in Leisure and Sports for the future facilitators; the Executive Training Responsible and Training Master trainer. Other training will be developed especially for trainers and attendant for persons with disabilities. The implementation of the Program relies on partners and their member organizations that are approved by the CQL. The accreditation of organizations includes two components, one for national organizations that may be approved Master Trainer and the other component is for local organizations that may be approved the Executive Training Responsible. Training enables participants to develop properly in environments where they will have the responsibility of leading free-time activities, whether cultural, outdoor, social- educational, scientific, sporting or tourism. The training provides a general and versatile enough content to ensure relevance, in all walks of leisure, working with young people from 5-17 years. Moreover, this training is a basic that can be improved by additional training and expertise. For example, training on the facilitation with adult clients, and elderly,  and other special groups.
Dr Stephen Anderson

Dr Stephen Anderson

United States of America

TITLE : Happy Living Environments AUTHOR : Dr Stephen Anderson                Biography :         Has a PhD is in therapeutic recreation from the University of Maryland. He has taught 42 years. Research is building social capital to enhance health and well-being, with over 60 publications and 150 presentations. His service includes WLO BOD, NTRS president, AALR BOD, member of WLJ, AJESS, TRJ, LT/JOPERD, APAQ, editorial boards.   ABSTRACT   Other than a warm puppy, what makes us happy? We know money does not buy happiness. But what actually determines happiness? According to Lyubomirsky (2007), there are three categories of determinants.  50% is based on set points that are genetically determined by our parents. We can become unhappy or become happier; however, we return to our set point or baseline. 10% is based on life circumstances e.g., wealth, health, marital status, and environment. And 40% is based on intentional behaviors and thoughts (daily activities). This session will focus on the category of life circumstances, specifically the environment. Louv (2005) brought to our attention what he called nature-deficit disorder. His main thesis was that many of today’s childhood problems are connected to the absence of nature in their indoor ‘plugged-in’ lives. Many researchers (e.g., Mitchell, 2013 and Berman et al, 2012) believe the disconnect from nature has a negative effect on people’s health. Crompton (2013) traced the positive impact parks have on health. The design of our living environments (neighborhoods, affordable housing, inclusionary zoning, proximity, transportation and pedestrianization, parks and green spaces) directly correlates to our happiness. According to Montgomery (2014), less commuting time, better neighborhood design, walkability, nature (gardens, parks, trees, green spaces), and other urban design changes make people feel happy, generous, helpful, trusting, and friendly. For example, he postulates that nature needs to be included in every living environment. The Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), which is affiliated with the United Nations, published the World Happiness Report (2015) and identified criteria as part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to help guide the world community towards a more inclusive and sustainable pattern of global development. The concepts of happiness and well-being are very likely to help guide progress towards sustainable development. By considering happiness, it is possible to improve the world’s social, economic and environmental well-being. Results of these and other studies will be shared and suggestions on how to increase happiness and well-being by improving living environments will be presented and discussed.
Dr Tom Forsell

Dr Tom Forsell

Australia

TITLE : The nature and measurement of social capital in local area leisure clubs AUTHOR : Dr Tom Forsell             CO-AUTHORS : Prof Remco Polman;  Dr John Tower AFFILIATION : Victoria University, Australia  Biography : Tom’s area of research is in Social capital its nature and tis measurement in organised formal networks.  He completed his PhD with a mixed method study of the nature of Social Capital, its components and the development and validation of a scale to measure it in organised clubs.  His presentation will be on this area of research and will present on Social Capital, its nature and components, the scale development and validation and his findings in the large sample from the 54 clubs who were involved in his research.  He is currently working with a number of councils in Victoria on the measurement of social capital in both their sport and recreation clubs.  Tom also lectures in and has completed research in Inclusion of People with a Disability in Sport and Recreation Programs and the issues they encounter in participation.  At Victoria University he lectures in Recreation Programming theory, Social Psychology of Sport and Recreation, Inclusive theory, and Community Development. Abstract The nature of social capital in local leisure clubs today has become an area of interest. Although research has mainly made inferences on the possible outcomes of social capital there is currently little agreement on its factors or its measurement. Therefore there has been an urgent need to examine the possible social capital factors present in leisure clubs and develop a tool to measure these and overall social capital levels. This research addresses these two aims through an analysis of social capital in local leisure clubs and the development of a scale to measure social capital. A mixed method was adopted with the initial qualitative phase informing the main (quantitative) phase of the research by identifying social capital concepts and contributing to scale development. Focus groups, interviews and a panel of experts were used with aspects of grounded theory to develop and refine items. The quantitative phase employed factor analysis for scale item reduction and multivariate analysis to test the scale. The ‘Club Social Capital Scale’ (CSCS) was distributed to 54 Victorian leisure clubs generating 1079 returned questionnaires. Employing factor analysis for item reduction, and testing for validity and reliability, the results identified 20 items covering four social capital components, (governance, norms, friendship – acceptance and trust – reciprocity). The overall scale (Cronbach alpha = .92) and its factors (between .76 and .83) had good reliability. The final scale was noted as a good tool for measuring social capital, with high reliability (Cronbach) and all scale items measuring social capital and its components, highlighting strong validity and reliability.  In addition to the CSCS psychometric scale measuring club member’s attitude to club social capital, an additional scale was constructed and validated which can be used in conjunction with the psychometric scale.  This behavioural scale measures actual incidents in the club indicating social capital which has a strong correlation to the CSCS scale.  The behavioural scale included nine items with good reliability (.88).  The CSCS correlated positively with the Behavioural scale and demonstrates the predictive validity of the CSCS.  Therefore in future research the two scales can be used in conjunction to measure social capital attitudes or beliefs and the actual behaviour of club members.  This research provides theory on the factors associated with social capital in leisure clubs and developed a short and easy to complete Club Social Capital Scale and the additional Behavioural Scale. In future research the scales can be useful tools measuring social capital in a range of organised community settings to assess levels of Social Capital.
Prof Tsung-Chiung (Emily) Wu

Prof Tsung-Chiung (Emily) Wu

Taiwan

TITLE : The Choice of Leisure Participation in Sustaining and Improving Quality of Life AUTHOR : Prof  Tsung-chiung Wu            CO-AUTHOR : Huei-Jyun (Kris) Chen       AFFILIATION : Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Leisure Studies at National Dong Hwa University, in Taiwan   Biography : Tsung-Chiung WU, Ph D is a professor in the Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Leisure Studies at National Dong Hwa University, in Taiwan. Her research interests include leisure participation, sustainable tourism development, health and happiness, travel and leisure behaviour.   ABSTRACT   Leisure Participations have perceived to be an important aspect of active living. However, the complexity of participation increases difficulties for academics to illustrate clearly the contributions of leisure to people’s quality of lives. Beyond the types and total amount of participation, this research extends to the patterns of leisure participation and argues that the combination of leisure activities and the selective involvement can advance our understanding on the influences of leisure participation. In terms of the leisure participation patterns, the first perspective raised and examined is the diverse combinations of multiple participations. The concept of bio-diversification in the natural sciences concluded that the level of diversification is critical to its health and sustainability. Stalker (2008) also revealed that more diverse social contacts among individuals results in a healthy lifestyle. The importance of diversification of leisure participation has been overlooked in leisure studies. A second perspective is the level of activeness engaged in by individuals. Iso-Ahola (1980) and other scholars suggested that active leisure, such as physical activities would be more healthy than passive leisure, such as watching TV. The third perspective, drawing from previous leisure research (Stebbins, 1992; Bryan, 1997), is the issue of specialization or seriousness of leisure participation. Serious leisure, as conceptualised, by Stebbins (1992) and recreation specialization concept by Bryan (1997), emphasized the serious involvement on a selected leisure activity to bring about great enjoyment and achievement to the participant. Thus, four measurement indices, diversification index (richness of activity combination), concentration index (unification of activity participation), activeness index (the ratio of active and passive participation) and specialization index (the involvement on selective activity) are modified or created to illustrate various patterns of leisure participation. A face to face resident survey was conducted to gather information on types and amount of leisure activity participations, perceptions of life quality and demographics from 2025 effective respondents (2011 were valid for the study analysis) who were sampled and interviewed in four main regions, north, central, east and west, in Taiwan. Study results demonstrate that the diversification, activeness, and selective specialization can illustrate the evident contributions of overall leisure participation on people’s life satisfaction. The stronger and more steadily effect sizes are found on various measures of life quality while comparing with the influences of types of leisure activities and total amount of participation. Furthermore, this study will also discuss several interesting and meaningful findings as constructing various indices of leisure participation patterns.
Mr Unathi Henama

Mr Unathi Henama

South Africa

TITLE : New Visa Rules in South Africa: Un-intended consequences for the tourism industry AUTHOR : Mr  Unathi    Henama                                               AFFILIATION : Department of Tourism Management at the Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria   Biography: Unathi Sonwabile Henama is tourism faculty at the Department of Tourism Management at the Tshwane University of Technology in Pretoria. He has a Masters from the University of the Free State and completed his undergraduate programme in Tourism Management at the Central University of Technology, Free State. He has attended several international and national conference and has published in accredited journals.   ABSTRACT   There is a paucity of academic gaze on the recently introduced visa regulations. The concerns of the tourism industry have been noted by the media.  The Department of Tourism and many industry players South Africa indicated the new visa regulations are having a negative impact on tourists’ arrivals. Tourism is a priority sector in South Africa as the major economic sectors such as mining and agriculture had been declining in their GDP contribution and job creation. From 01 June 2015, it would be a requirement that all children under the age of 18 have an unabridged birth certificate that represents the names of both parents when departing or arriving in South Africa, as an indication that parental consent was granted. The intentions of the visa regulations were to stem trafficking of minors. In addition, it required that visa applicants submit biometric data in person. This new requirement is alleged, has led to the decrease in the arrivals as presented in the latest tourist arrival statistics. South Africa is not the first country to require biometric data submission from visitors. This is a challenge as this becomes a form of a tax and an administrative burden for tourists that will reduce the attractiveness of destination South Africa in comparison to competitor countries. Tourism is a highly competitiveness industry as almost all countries have jumped on the tourism bandwagon due to the positive economic benefits of tourism. The intentions of the visa regulations has had unintended consequences on the tourism industry. The reality of decreased tourists arrivals, led to a campaign that sought to lobby the government to change the new visa regulations. The arrivals from new sources markets such as China and India were down, attributed to the new regulations. The Cabinet of South Africa established an inter-ministerial task team to look into the impacts of the new visa regulations. The paper will consider aspects such as homeland security, state sovereignty, migration control and tourism growth. The purpose of this literature review is to create a fill a paucity of a body of knowledge on visa’s in South Africa.
Dr Vânia de Fátima Noronha Alves

Dr Vânia de Fátima Noronha Alves

Brazil

TITLE : An analysis of the leisure Brazilians living in the US          AUTHOR : Dr Vânia de Fátima Noronha Alves     CO-AUTHOR : Mr Gustavo Henrique Noronha Alves       AFFILIATION : University of Minas Gerais, Brazil  Biography : PhD in education USP / Brazil . Postgraduate Program Professor in Education at the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais . Teacher at the undergraduate Physical Education and Pedagogy . Researcher Leisure .  ABSTRACT   It is estimated that around three million Brazilians live abroad and that the United States continues to lead the preferred destination for those who decide to live in another country ( IBGE , 2010). This study aims to present an analysis of how Brazilian leisure enjoy in different cities and states of the North American continent . It is an exploratory study ( Triviños , 1987) and the methodological strategy adopted was the application of a questionnaire with 25 questions via the web initially sent to relatives and friends of the authors and then expanded to other Brazilians, on the initiative of own searched. Data were tabulated and analyzed in the light of leisure theory built in our country since 1960 gone when this issue began to be discussed and incorporated as a field of study (MARCELLINO, 1987, 2006, 2007; GOMES, 2004; NORONHA et al., 2010, among others) . It looks like the reasons that led the subjects to emigrate  relations with work and leisure living conditions (time available, equipment, developed cultural activities, motivations, limits), among others were analyzed . The results show that respondents feel doubly foreigners: on American soil because they realize subjects with identity differences in the choices and experiences in the field of leisure, and also in Brazilian lands, when they return to our country and no longer identify with many leisure stocks experienced here, for different reasons. In addition, migrants embody the American maxim that “time is money” and, after the dazzling period to the foreign land and the difficulties with learning the language, just explore the leisure facilities of cities. Most television is one of his favorite practices many of whom get the packages to watch the transmission channels of Brazilian programs, finding in this action, a way to overcome the longing of our country and their relatives. Research of this nature contribute greatly to us to know more and more our own society , the symbols that constitute the way of life because even when living in other cultural contexts, subjects tend to reproduce the leisure practices learned throughout his life. Demand for leisure establishes a connection to the life history of the subject. For various reasons few are those who incorporate in their daily leisure practices that most identify with the American way.
Prof Waldir Assad

Prof Waldir Assad

Brazil

TITLE : Social development and Shopping Malls: the new leisure activity AUTHOR : Mr Waldir      Assad                    CO-AUTHORS : Prof. Tânia Mara Vieira Sampaio                 ABSTRACT   This study aims to understand the relationship between leisure and shopping malls, as an area of use and experience, in a society in constant transformation, such as the case with the city of Ceilandia, located near Brasilia – Brazil’s capital. At first, Franceschi Neto (1994) shows that leisure can be understood very simply as “an activity performed in one’s Free Time, in which one seeks for pleasure, personal satisfaction.” Gomes (2004) shows that “leisure provides the experience of several manifestations of culture, such as games, plays, parties, sightseeing, traveling, sports and also art in its many forms. (Paintings, sculptures, literature, dance, theater, music, and films). The city of Ceilandia, located 30 km away from the capital of Brazil, had its socioeconomic development changed radically over the past 10 years, a period of significant social changes in Brazil, emerging from poverty to middle class. For Salles (2011) this was due to many improvement programs for income distribution, such as a real increase in the minimum wage, child benefit, payroll loans and others, and also the economic acceleration that occurred since 2006. All these elements made these Brazilians surface to the consumer market. In the specific case of Ceilandia, when comparing the situation of 2004 with 2013, the most surprising situation was the decrease in the number of shacks, which in 2004 was 3,148, and only 226 in 2013, showing a decrease of 1392.9% in the number of shacks that have become better quality dwellings. In this sense, this study aims to understand the relationship between the people that go to Juscelino Kubitschek (JK) and Tower malls, and the use the services, and check if this malls are seen by the population of Ceilandia as a leisure space. The methodology of this research was a quantitative cross-sectional study aiming to evaluate the perception of the regular users of JK and Tower malls as a leisure space, and if they use these places only for shopping or some other definition to be discovered by the data collected during the survey. A questionnaire with 21 closed questions in which 6 drew the profile of the person answering and 15 sought to discover the reasons that led them to attend one specific mall was applied. The data was presented as frequency and the average of the responses. Following the analysis of the responses, it is expected to show how this society has changed in the last 10 years in understanding Shopping Malls and utilizing these spaces as a leisure space. What value does this society give to Shopping Malls? A simple place to shop or a leisure space?
Dr Walid Briki

Dr Walid Briki

Qatar

TITLE : Motivation Toward Physical Exercise Influences Wellbeing Through Trait Self-Control AUTHOR : Dr Walid Briki              AFFILIATION : Qatar University, Qatar Biography : Dr. Briki joined Qatar University in the Fall 2015. He has studied in France (University of Montpellier and University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis), and specializes in social and sport psychology. His Ph.D. thesis consisted in examining the dynamics of motivational states during sport competitions, and how such dynamics impacted performance. He worked at University of Montpellier and University of French West Indies as a teaching assistant and assistant professor, respectively. He taught social, developmental, sport, and exercise psychology, and scientific methodology. As a mental coach, he has worked with many athletes, and contributed to prepare them mentally for high-stake competitions (e.g., 2006 World Team Table Tennis Championship). As a scientist, Dr. Briki collaborates with several psychologists and physiologists worldwide (e.g., USA, Qatar, France, Italy, Tunisia) on diverse topics ranging from human performance to health. ABSTRACT The beneficial (or detrimental) effects of self-determined (or non-self-determined) Motivation toward Physical Exercise (MPE) are to date widely documented in the literature of exercise psychology. However, the mechanisms underlying those relationships still need to be clarified, and I posit that those relationships can be mediated by self-control (i.e., tendency to override prepotent responses), which represents one of the most powerful, adaptive, and healthy psychological constructs. Also, no study to date has examined the link between MPE, self-control and health. As a result, the aim of the present study was to examine the view that MPE may promote health-related outcomes through self-control.  Specifically, this study sought to examine whether trait self-control (TSC) may be able to mediate the relationships of autonomous (or self-determined) MPE (A-MPE) and controlled (or non-self-determined) MPE (C-MPE) with psychological wellbeing (PWB). Autonomous motivation reflects a motivational state in which self-initiation and coordination of personally endorsed behaviors predominate. Autonomous MPE was assessed through different subscales, such as intrinsic and identified regulations. Controlled motivation reflects a functioning driven by externally imposed and introjected contingencies, eliciting pressure to conform to perceived expectations. Controlled MPE was assessed through the subscales of introjected regulation and external regulation. The absence of MPE was assessed through the amotivation subscale. Three hundred and  seventeen adult Americans ((223 females, 70.3%, and 94 males, 29.7%; Mage = 32.97, SDage = 11.30) performing regularly physical exercise were recruited online to answer questionnaires. To examine the relationships between MPE, TSC and PWB, two competing mediation models were tested: While a starting model used TSC as the mediator of the MPE-PWB relationship, an alternative model used MPE as the mediator of the TSC-PWB relationship. Globally, results revealed a positive link between A-MPE, TSC, and PWB, and a negative link between C-MPE and TSC.  Regarding the starting model, results revealed that TSC mediated the relationship of A-MPE and C-MPE with PWB.  Regarding the alternative model, results revealed that A-MPE mediated the relationship between TSC and PWB.  Moreover, results revealed that the starting model (R2 = 36.947%, goodness of fit = 1.008) was more effective than the alternative model (R2 = 22.424%, goodness of fit = .975) to account for the relationships between MPE, TSC, and PWB. This study provides initial insights into how self-determined MPE influences psychological health through self-regulation mechanisms. From an applied standpoint, physical education teachers, fitness coaches or parents should promote autonomous (i.e., intrinsic and identified) forms of MPE. To do so, they should convey positive conceptions of physical exercise by emphasizing the importance of exercise for health, cognitive functioning, and physical fitness (as incentives based on identified motivation) and by associating exercise with the notion of pleasure and enjoyment (as incentives based on intrinsic motivation). Additionally, and consistent with self-determination theory’s predictions, teachers or coaches should support people’s fundamental need for autonomy because of its links to health-related benefits. Further studies should test the influence of physical exercise program based on the type of MPE on the development of self-control, affects, social and healthy behaviors.
Prof Wing-Chung Patrick Lau

Prof Wing-Chung Patrick Lau

Hong Kong

TITLE : Sport volunteerism: an exploring study on volunteering motivations in Chinese university students AUTHOR :  Prof Wing-chung Patrick Lau                                CO-AUTHOR : Wang Xinghua     AFFILIATION : Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong  Biography : Research focus: Exercise and sport psychology. Since 1998, Prof. Lau has published more than 100 research articles and conference papers in international referred journals and publishers. He is the Accredited Sport Psychologist of British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences since 2005, and currently the honorary professor in the School of Public Health, Peking University, China. He has been appointed as advisor or consultant for 18 governmental and commercial organizations in Hong Kong and overseas. Since 2002, he has been invited as the journal reviewer for different international and regional referred journals. He is also the host of radio (RTHK) and TV sports program related to Olympic Games and sport science. ABSTRACT Volunteerism has been underestimated and under researched in the society (Oppenheimer & Warburton, 2000). The situation has changed recently with the promotion from 2004 World Leisure Congress with the question: ‘Can you imagine a world without volunteers?’ (Thibault, 2004). Many international mega sport events such as Olympic, Soccer World Cup and Commonwealth Games all depend on a large number of volunteers to ensure the event success. The China National Committee and the United Nation Development Program collaborated to measure volunteering in China in 2002. The result showed that 85.2 % of Chinese adults volunteered themselves to different social activities in 2001. It was the highest participation rate of volunteer across the world. In 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and 2010 Guangzhou Asian Games, 70,000 and 60,000 volunteers were recruited in China respectively. There were two types of factors in volunteer motivations, contextual factors and personal factors. Contextual factors refer to culture, regime, country, economy, geography, family, etc. Personal factors include age, gender, education, income, social resource, experience and so on. With better understanding to the sport volunteer motivations, it would help develop the sport volunteerism in China. However, there are still very few studies investigating volunteerism of sport event in China. Regarding the volunteer motivation factors, Beard and Ragheb (1980) and Strigas and Jackson (2003) recognized that sport volunteers might have different motivations compared to general volunteers. It is also imperative to investigate the unique motivators in Chinese if different from Western. The aim of this study was to investigate the motivations of sport event volunteer among university students in China. The specific research questions were : 1. What are the motivators of Chinese university students when they volunteer in sport event? 2. Are these motivators different between gender, degree major and previous volunteering experience? Three hundred and sixty six university students (18-22 years old, 56% male, 44% female) participated in the study in North-east China. 56% of them have no previous volunteering experience, and 41% is from sport university. The questionnaire developed by Strigas and Jackson (2003) was employed in the present study, which is a valid and reliable instrument to measure volunteer motivation in sport event. It consists of 34 items based on four previous studies. They are human service volunteer motivation (Cnaan & Goldberg-Glen, 1991), general volunteer motivation (Clary et al., 1998), motivation in leisure (Beard & Ragheb, 1980), and special event (Getz, 1991). The questionnaire has five factors: material, purposive, leisure, egoistic, and external motivation. It is a 7-point likert-scale from not important at all (1 point) to extremely important (7 point). Since the participants are Chinese students, the questionnaire was translated into Chinese.   University students are major participants of sport volunteering activities in current years. Understanding their motivations is significant for sport organizations to recruit and train volunteers. From the organizations perspective, it can help maximize the benefits of volunteerism. These findings can also shed light on the sport event needs and the volunteer needs. Consequently, a win-win situation can be achieved for both sport organizations and volunteers.
Ms Xialei (Sally) Duan

Ms Xialei (Sally) Duan

Taiwan

TITLE : Cittaslow philosophy in the context of rural tourism development in China         AUTHOR : Ms Xialei (Sally) Duan                                 Biography : Currently a Ph.D student in Department of Geography and Resource Management. Main research area is rural tourism in China.   ABSTRACT   The Slow Movement is a term describing a wide range of efforts taking place around the world that seek to connect us more meaningfully with others, with place, and with ourselves. It emerged as an effort to counteract the fast–paced, commodity–focused, unbalanced, and impersonal nature of much of modern human culture. Cittaslow, a concept that promotes a cultural renaissance opposed to the fast pace of lifestyle has generated interest globally. This concept started with an interest in “Slow Movement” following the adaption of “Slow Food” movement in Italy in 1986, it has since transformed in a set of guiding principles in which slow food, slow cities and slow tourism are promoted. Rural development is one of the major development focuses in China. This study attempts to assess the feasibility of utilizing Cittaslow philosophy as a rural destination branding tool in China. The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between a rural branding strategy and rural development through the case study of Yaxi town, in Gaochun district, Nanjing, which is the first Cittaslow member in China to address research questions, such as how can we apply this Cittaslow philosophy in developing rural destination image and identity.
Mr Yaw Koranteng

Mr Yaw Koranteng

South Africa

TITLE : The missing link and its impact on healthy living AUTHOR : Mr Yaw Koranteng     Biography : The author has lectured sports, recreation and physical education in Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. He was Correctional Services Provincial Sports and Recreation Manager. He holds B.Ed. and M.Ed. degrees. He is currently a wellness consultant and the founder of an NPO, Heart and Soul of Healthy Living.                            ABSTRACT Available statistics both from the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Statistics South Africa, show that over the past decade there has been a relative improvement in health care as well as in the quality of healthy living programs,  not only in South Africa but in many parts of the world. Yet other statistics indicate that the same period has experienced an increase in the prevalence of diseases, even among those living healthy lifestyles. This seems an anomaly as an increase in the quality of health care is naturally expected to result in improved quality of life.  In an attempt to understand why this anomaly exists, the author investigated whether there are any other dimensions on healthy living beside the traditional ones and if so, how they are related.  For this work, he mostly used literature existing on the subject. He found that most literature on healthy living suggests three traditional dimensions. These are: healthy eating, physical activity and weight management.  He also used questionnaires and interviews to obtain evidence. The participants included males and females above 35 years of age in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Over 75 per cent of the participants indicated that there are indeed other factors. The author has categorized them as social, spiritual, physical, financial and emotional. He terms these underlying factors and for the purpose of this work, the missing link. Further investigation of available literature revealed that not only do these factors have an impact on healthy living but that they also influence the traditional ones either negatively or positively. He also believes that the impact of this dimension is not highlighted sufficiently in the body of literature on healthy living. This work is significant as it establishes that the underlying factors do influence other factors and that due consideration should be given to such for any comprehensive or holistic analysis or review on healthy living.  More importantly, knowledge of the influence of this dimension can help people to either harness the positive influences, or reduce the negative ones to improve healthy living. The author believes that an education and understanding of the impact and relationship among these factors is essential to help people make better choices in their quest for healthy living. From the findings, the author believes that most of the common definitions of healthy living are inadequate as they do not recognize this relationship.  The author has thus proposed a new definition for review. He has further proposed, also for review, a simple, unique, mathematical formula that expresses the relationship between healthy living and its dimensions. The formula, which is easy to memorize, can help people better appreciate and understand the relationship that exists among all the dimensions as well as the impact of the missing link on healthy living.
Dr Yoshitaka Iwasaki

Dr Yoshitaka Iwasaki

Canada

TITLE : Contributions of leisure to “meaning-making” and its implications for leisure services AUTHOR : Dr Yoshitaka Iwasaki AFFILIATION :   Biography : Dr. Iwasaki’s expertise includes culture/diversity, leisure, and health; meaning-making, coping/healing, and life quality; and community-based research with marginalized populations–Indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities, and high-risk youth. Dr. Iwasaki has over 70 refereed journal articles and over $5 million in research funding, including federal (Canadian & US) research grants.   ABSTRACT   The pursuit of a meaningful, enriching life is a central agenda for humans and is essential for improved human conditions. Meaning-making refers to a process by which a person derives meaning(s) from an activity.6 Among many activities, leisure provides opportunities for meaning-making in various ways (e.g., psychologically, spiritually, socially, culturally), for example, through creative leisure10 and spiritual leisure.  The purpose of this paper is to identify and map the current research-based knowledge about the role of leisure in meaning-making, and articulate its implications for advancing the field of leisure studies and services, contextualized within the theme of 2016 World Leisure Congress from a global perspective.   According to Newman et al.’s (2014) literature review based on 363 research articles linking leisure (e.g., running, quilting, aboriginal dancing, volunteering and storytelling, serious leisure, and flow) and subjective wellbeing (SWB), meaning-making was identified as a core mechanism to promote SWB. Deschenes (2011) suggested that meaning-making through leisure can promote personal development, as a freeing source for experiencing “infinite, liberating effects of leisure.” Banfield and Burgess’ (2013) study with artists showed meaning construction of flow experiences derived from creative practices, embodied within both experiential (e.g., expressive) and existential (e.g., meaning, vitality, identity, & achievement) aspects of flow. Iwasaki’s (2008) integrative review of the literature highlighted culturally contextualized processes of meaning-making through leisure that involves both “remedying the bad” and “enhancing the good” in people’s quest for a meaningful life.  Broadly, the role of leisure in meaning-making has important implications for advancing the field of leisure studies, considering an increasing emphasis on “positiveness” in the social sciences. For example, Freire (2013) emphasized “embedding leisure into the positive science field,” by stressing the significance of meaning-making (e.g., through “serious leisure”) that extends from subjective experiences to social worlds.   Importantly, the role of leisure in meaning-making is relevant to recreation and leisure practices. For example, Carruthers and Hood (2007) developed a Leisure and Well-being Model (LWM), claiming that: “The profession of Therapeutic Recreation (TR) has the opportunity to play an important role in supporting clients to create a life of meaning, in spite of challenges and limitations” (p. 276). Hutchinson and Nimrod’s (2012) study on leisure as a resource for successful aging by older adults with chronic health conditions, identified several key themes including “more than managing—living a life of meaning.” Chun and Lee’s (2010) study on posttraumatic growth for people with spinal cord injury identified the themes of making sense of traumatic experience and finding meaning in everyday life, and building meaningful relationships through leisure.  Phinney et al.’s (2007) phenomenological study with elders with dementia found that leisure activities promoted meaning-making through enhancing enjoyment, connection, autonomy, and personal identity.  The meaningfulness of leisure for immigrants was shown to go beyond coping with and adapting to acculturation stress, but also involves self-realisation, self-expression, and a sense of belonging/connectedness. Such leisure-generated unique experiences and meanings appear particularly salient to marginalized populations, including persons with disabilities and ethnic minorities (e.g., immigrants) to address limited opportunities, social exclusion, and access issues globally.
Ms Sandhya Singh

Ms Sandhya Singh

Director

TITLE : Translating SDGs into the Future for All demands Policy Imperatives Within and Outside the Health Sector! AUTHOR : Ms Sandhya A Singh AFFILIATION : Director, Cluster: Non-Communicable Diseases, National Department of Health, South Africa  Biography : Sandhya Arjun Singh is the Director: Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases (NCD), Disability, Geriatrics and Eye Health at the National Department of Health. Sandhya and her team are responsible for the review and development of related policies and strategies as well as for providing support and monitoring the implementation of services within provinces. She presently serves as a member of  The Policy Advisory Group of the World Cancer Research Fund International; The Advisory Committee of the Africa Cancer Insitute; as the Ministerial Representative on the Professional Board for Optometry and Dispensing Opticians (HPCSA) and Chairs the National Technical Committee of the Medtronic Philanthropy, HealthRise Project (SA). Sandhya  is a Fellow of the Oliver Tambo Fellowship Programme on Health Management and is presently registered for a post-graguate programme at the University of Stellenbosch.  She is grateful for the many opportunities presented to her at Global and National  levels to move the NCD and Development agenda forward in South Africa. ABSTRACT Approval of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the Heads of State at the United Nations General Assembly in September 2015 was viewed as a victory in the global fight against Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Goal 3 of the SDGs talks to ensuring healthy lives and promoting well being for all at all ages and, specifically by 2030; to reduce by one- third premature mortality from NCDs through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well being. Low and middle income countries experience multiple burden of disease including NCDs, high levels of poverty and poor access to care resulting in cycles of disease, lack of development and un-necessary suffering. The SDGs refer to a target to achieve reduced premature mortality. However countries also have an obligation to shape and sustain the future wanted by all their people in which they experience “Leisure, Health and Happiness” on an equitable basis. Interventions in this regard include adopting public health approaches to preventing NCDs where applicable as well as providing an enabling environment, providing comprehensive management and control of NCDs and reducing disability as a result of poorly controlled NCDs. This responsibility lies within the scope of the Health Sector but will not be achieved successfully without consideration of related SDGs, the application of sustainable and cost effective funding models as well as informed participation by civil society including patients and their families/caregivers. This presentation will explore how the SDG’s are perceived by especially low and middle income countries, the expectations of these countries of the SDGs, the inter-dependent components of health and development as well as invaluable lessons learnt from meeting MDG targets. Underpinning the presentation will be an identification and discussion of essential policy imperatives within and outside the health sector required to translate the SDGs and create a future for ALL, especially those in greatest need.
Prof Tony Veal

Prof Tony Veal

Australia

WORKSHOP Presentation for the Workshop on the ‘WLO Leisure Charter and Human Rights’, hosted by the World Leisure Academy   Reviewing the WLO Charter for Leisure   Presenter : A.J. Veal Affiliation : University of Technology Sydney   The World Leisure Organisation’s Charter for Leisure was first published in 1970, revised in 1979 and published in its current form in 2000. In this presentation it is argued that it is time for another review of the Charter. It highlights a number of areas for reform, including: (1)  more explicit acknowledgement of other charters and declarations regarding social groups with which leisure is concerned, such as the economically disadvantaged, women, ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities, children and people with disabilities;  (2) linking with comparable documents in related fields, such as sport, tourism and culture; (3) demonstration  of the relevance of leisure rights to leisure-related policy at international, regional, national and local levels; and  (4) reflection of developments in leisure scholarship. The Charter was originally published just a few years after the launch, in 1966, of the UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), which gives legal backing to a range of human rights, including leisure-related rights, identified in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The year 2016 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the ICESCR, so revision of the WLO Charter for Leisure this year would be timely.
Prof Roger Coles

Prof Roger Coles

United States of America

TITLE : The Growth and Benefits of Community Walking and Biking Trails around the World AUTHOR : Prof Roger Coles AFFILIATION : University of Central Michigan, United States of America Prof Roger Coles is a Canadian, a Professor and the Interim Dean of the College of Graduate Studies at Central Michigan University.  He has spent 40 years as an educator, Department Chair of the 2nd largest Parks, Recreation & Leisure Services Program in the US and now is entering his 6th year as Interim Dean of a university with 6,400 graduate students. He has spent his entire career in service having served as President of the Society of Park & Recreation Educators, American Leisure Academy, American Association for Leisure & Recreation, Michigan Parks & Recreation Association and the only two-time Chair of the Council on Accreditation.  He currently serves as the Chair for the World Leisure Organization.  He is an associate editor of 2 foreign journals.  The Asian Journal of Exercise & Sport Science and Creativity & Leisure: An Intercultural Cross-Disciplinary Journal in Singapore. Abstract Leisure and wellness have emerged as important social constructs of the 21st century. With the emphasis on health, wellbeing, and fitness in today’s society, trails are becoming just as important as streets and sidewalks in our communities and countryside. Walkable and riding trails, whether together or separate, generate economic, manufacturing, reduced absenteeism and healthcare costs, social interaction, ecological understanding, fitness and physical activity, and event tourism. All beneficial for local governments, homeowners, businesses and policy decision makers. Any trail, long or short, is a valuable asset to any community or country. It provides free recreation and physical activity for people of all ages and fitness levels.
Mr Xuewu Zhang

Mr Xuewu Zhang

China

TITLE : Supply side reform: the opportunity and challenge of Chinese leisure industry AUTHOR : Zhang Xuewu AFFILIATION : China National Travel Service (HK) Group Corporation  Biography : Mr. Zhang Xuewu is Chairman of China National Travel Service (HK) Group Corporation, Member of The eleventh and twelfth session of the CPPCC National Committee, experienced the positions of Vice President of China National Metals & Minerals Import & Export Corporation. Abstract After decades of rapid economy growth and lifestyle evolution, Chinese leisure industry is facing great opportunities and challenges with the robust leisure demand of Chinese people. Due to the primary stage of Chinese leisure industry, the structure of supply side is unbalanced with simple and low-end products full of the market and is incompatible with the upgraded, diversified consumer market. Starting from the supply side, the supply side reform of the Chinese leisure industry should strengthen the adaptability and flexibility of supply side according to the demand by increasing total factor productivity, enriching products portfolio, enforcing brand strategy of the companies in leisure industry in order to better the quality and efficiency of supply side and broaden effective supply. More than that, the structures of investment and leisure industry should be further optimized in further to boost the sound and sustained development of leisure industry.
Mr Dylan Tommy

Mr Dylan Tommy

South Africa

TITLE : An overview of Lifesaving South Africa & its role in Leisure and Tourism AUTHOR : Mr Dylan Tommy CO-AUTHOR : Helen Herbert AFFILIATION : Life Saving South Africa  Biography : Dylan Tommy has been a volunteer with Lifesaving South Africa for over 25 years, he has held various executive position at club, provincial and national level with LSA. He currently holds the following positions within the lifesaving environment: President of Lifesaving South Africa (2008 – present) Vice-President of the International Life Saving Federation: Africa Region. Board Member of the International Life Saving Federation Member of the Business Commission of the International Life Saving Federation Board Member of the Royal Life Saving Society Commonwealth. Abstract Lifesaving was first introduced to South Africa in 1911 and the first lifesaving branch was established in 1913. In 1933 the first surf lifesaving club was formed in Durban and soon after this clubs were established on various beaches in South Africa. Lifesaving South Africa (LSA) is affiliated to the International Life Saving Federation and the Royal Life Saving Society Commonwealth. LSA is recognised by Sport & Recreation South Africa (SRSA) and the South African Sport Confederation & Olympic Committee (SASCOC) as a national sport federation. LSA is also recognised by the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), the South African Maritime Safety Authority (SAMSA) and Western Cape Disaster Management as an aquatic rescue & lifesaving service. The organisation is also registered with CATHSSETA as a service provider for the training of lifeguards. Lifesaving South Africa is currently working with the South African Local Government Association (SALGA) to reduce drowning by delivering awareness programmes and ensuring that all municipal lifeguards are suitably trained and qualified.  There are 90 lifesaving clubs spread across all nine provinces of the country, with almost 7000 members in total. Many of these clubs compete in the sport of lifesaving, which is divided into 2 disciplines; pool lifesaving and surf lifesaving. Lifesaving South Africa hosts national championships in each of these disciplines in four age categories; nippers, juniors, seniors and masters. Almost 2000 competitors compete annually in these championships.  Lifesaving South Africa has approximately 3500 active lifeguards who voluntary patrol various beaches and other aquatic venues on weekends and public holidays during summer. The organisation also trains an average of 1000 new lifeguards each year. These volunteer lifeguards ensure that members of the public and tourists engaged in aquatic based leisure and recreation activities are kept safe. During 2015 LSA lifeguards performed almost 3900 rescues bring the total rescues performed since the organisations inception to way over 100 000. Furthermore, over 90% of all lifeguards employed in South Africa are trained by Lifesaving South Africa at minimal cost to the individual. Lifesaving South Africa’s main focus is Drowning Prevention and the organisation uses various methods to create awareness of the dangers related to engaging in aquatic based leisure and recreation activities, like swimming, surfing, etc. LSA uses Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, printed materials and the media to promote the activities of the organisation and its drowning prevention campaign. The organisation has also makes use of a cell phone App to direct beachgoers to the safest beaches. Lifesaving South Africa provides a vital service which ensures that people can engage in aquatic based leisure and recreation activities safely and that South Africa’s beaches remain safe tourist attractions. This service is provided at no cost to government, tourism authorities, the tourism industry or the general public.
Mr Siphamandla Nyawose

Mr Siphamandla Nyawose

South Africa

TITLE : THE IMPACT OF A SCHOOL-BASED AND FAMILY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTION ON LEARNERS’ HEALTH BEHAVIOUR AUTHOR : Mr Siphamandla Nyawose CO-AUTHOR : Dr R Naidoo AFFILIATION : University of Kwazulu Natal, South Africa   ABSTRACT   Physical activity among children and adolescents is believed to be insufficient. Low levels of physical activity seem to persist from childhood into adulthood with this increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a school-based physical activity and family intervention on learners in a selected township in KwaZulu-Natal. A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent groups design with an intervention programme and assessment pre- and post-intervention. Two schools (one control and one experimental) in Clermont Township, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were purposively identified by the provincial Department of Health. Grade six learners (n=129), their parents (n=19), school principals (n=2) and educators (n=21) participated in this study. Learners completed a battery of fitness tests and completed a physical activity questionnaire. Principals and educators were interviewed. Additionally, parents participated in focus group sessions. Post-intervention results showed significant increases in the physical fitness of learners (p<0.05). Improved passion and knowledge from teachers to teach PE was reported. Furthermore, the improved knowledge of physical activity and healthy lifestyle practices by parents, in turn, encouraged learners to participate in physical activity during lessons and after school. Findings show that the introduction of various methods of physical activity within the schools’ existing curriculum, working with educators and parents can improve physical fitness and healthy eating habits in the learners without disrupting normal learning and teaching in the school. Key words physical activity, school-based intervention, educators, family intervention
Ms Nienke van Boom

Ms Nienke van Boom

Netherlands

TITLE : Exploring the role of leisure amenities  in residential choice and satisfaction AUTHOR : Ms Nienke van Boom               AFFILIATION :    NHTV Breda,  Netherlands   ABSTRACT   This paper stems from the increased attention by scholars (c.f. Florida, 2002; Glaeser, 2011) and urban practitioners for leisure amenities as tools to lure human (creative) capital to place in order to compete for talent. Although the topic has been discussed in many disciplines, a deep analysis of what these leisure amenities are, how they work, for whom and why, is lacking. The study draws attention to the role of leisure amenities as contexts for meaningful social practices, and thereby contexts for socio-spatial attachment to occur. Following the work of Arai and Pedlar (2003), Collins (2004) and others, I argue for a perspective on leisure practices as social and focal or ritual practices, providing opportunities for social bonds to be built, maintained and  strengthened.  The focus of this paper is on the role of leisure amenities in the residential choice and residential satisfaction for different stages of life. By use of a panel survey among Dutch citizens, the paper explores the relative importance of leisure amenities in the choice of place of residency for different life stages. Furthermore it explores the contribution of proximity to leisure amenities in comparison with ‘classic’ amenities in the satisfaction of the residential environment for these different life stages.  The objective of this paper is to get more insight in the value of leisure amenities, and their potential as contexts for building socio-spatial attachment, for the perceived quality of the residential environment for different social groups. It serves as a first exploration of a more in-depth understanding of  the role of leisure in human capital attraction. It is expected that especially in dense networked cities such as those in The Netherlands, leisure amenities might not have much power to distinguish one city from another.  The value of leisure spaces in relation to this battle for talent, might lie in the ability to foster social networks, resulting in a lower inclination to out-migration.  The paper ends with the question what these understandings imply for policy and planning.
Dr Suvimol Tangsujjapoj

Dr Suvimol Tangsujjapoj

Thailand

TITLE : Aspects of Leisure Participation to Promote Inclusion AUTHOR : Dr Suvimol Tangsujjapoj                         AFFILIATION : Kasetsart University, Thailand                       Biography : Ph.D. in Recreation Administration, New York University, USA, Ed.M. in Curriculum and Teaching in Physical Education, Columbia Universuty, USA, B.A. in Physical Education, Kasetsart University, Thailand. Currently working as an Associate Professor at the Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand. ABSTRACT The purpose of this concept paper is to address leisure participation to promote inclusion. Leisure is perceived freedom and intrinsic motivation. It is the individual engaged and challenge to have individual experience, personal growth and enhanced well-being. Leisure can positively affect people is abundant. Positive leisure plays a significant part in the lives of all people. Leisure has been shown to have instrumental value as a means for people to experience personal growth and development, or in short, to flourish. Participation leisure activity is a fundamental human right and an important factor of quality of life. Leisure experiences and participation provide unique and valuable opportunities that may result in numerous physical, social, and psychological benefits, as well as enhance overall quality of life. Barrier preventing individuals with disabilities from full leisure participation can be divided into three major categories: (1) intrinsic barrier, which result from the individual’s own limitations and may be associated with a physical,  psychological, or cognitive disability; (2) environmental barriers, composed of the many external forces that impose limitations on the individual with disability; and (3) communication barriers, which block interaction between the individual and his or her social environment. In inclusive recreation program everyone, regardless of ability, participates together in the same programs. Adaptations, if needed, are provided so that the person with a disability is an equal participant. The concept of inclusion enables people the freedom to chosen programs and services based on their interests and to engage in activities with friends and family. Leisure provides opportunities for normalization, to be in an environment and engaged in activities that are as normal as possible for someone of given age, sex, or location.  Leisure inclusion is physically, socially and administratively. Inclusive leisure experiences encourage and enhance opportunities for people of varying ability to participate and interact in life’s activities together with dignity. They also provide an environment that promotes and fosters physical, social, and psychological inclusion of people with diverse experiences and skill level. Inclusion enhances individuals’ potential for full and active participation in leisure activities and experiences. Steps make inclusive program and services for everyone including: (1) promoting inclusion through physical access; (2) promoting inclusion through programmatic access; (3) promoting inclusion through attitudinal access; (4) effective communication to facilitate inclusion; (5) using human resources to promote inclusion; and (6) committing to change and taking action. Moreover, strategies evaluate inclusion: (1) regularly communicate with the participant, family, and staff; and (2) make changes as needed supports, accommodations, environment, and program. In conclusion, leisure has been portrayed to be ideal conveyances to promote inclusion. Inclusion is most effective when support, assistance, and accommodations are provided. People are entitled to opportunities and services in the most inclusive setting.”
Prof Erwei Dong

Prof Erwei Dong

USA

TITLE : Mountain Hiking to Achieve Psychological Well-being: A Case of Trails in Taiwan PRESENTED BY : Prof Erwei Dong AUTHOR :  Chieh-Lu Li Co Authors : Ching‐Yi Wang, Erwei Dong, Ching-Han Wu, Bagkall Haivangang   Abstract   Well-being is one of the major psychological needs that people have long been to pursue, and it might result from participation in recreational activities such as mountain hiking. Mountain hiking improves hikers’ mental health and psychological well-being (PWB) is one of the most important contributors in outdoor recreation. PWB refers to how people evaluate their lives and the evaluations may be in the form of cognition or in the form of affect. PWB has strong connection with personal happiness and psychological status. Mountain hiking has been being a popular recreational activity in Taiwan. However, few literatures have focused on the relationship of PWB among different recreation behavior patterns of mountain hikers. Understanding the factors such as hikers’ PWB helps recreation managers tailor their services to meet the needs for their diverse clienteles. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) examine the homogeneity issue in combining two mountain hiker samples; 2) explore the differences of psychological well-being (PWB) of mountain hikers who were from different socio-demographics, living circles, travel distance and, regions in Taiwan. Yushan hiking trail in Yushan National Park and Sheishan hiking trail in Sheipa National Park are the study sites. Yushan with 3,952 meters and Sheishan with 3,886 meters in elevation is the highest and second highest mountain respectively in Taiwan. The two mountain routes are among the most popular hiking routes where need two days’ hike from trail head to the summit. In 2014 and 2015, on-site surveys were conducted in Yushan and Sheishan. We stayed at the trail head and trail cabin and asked if the hikers were willing to take a 15-minute survey. Overall, we obtained 803 valid surveys with a 95% response rate. In this study, PWB served as the dependent variable. Six independent variables were the socio-demographic and recreation behavior variables that showed significantly different between two settings including living circle, travel distance, region, employment, income, and hiker group composition. The results showed acceptable homogeneity in perceptions of PWB between two hiker samples. Furthermore, the socio-demographic and recreation behavior variables showed similar patterns between two samples. We hence combined these two samples for the follow-up analysis. In the questionnaire, we asked hikers’ residential zip code and, accordingly, calculated hikers’ living circle, travel distance, and region. The validity and reliability analysis showed the PWB possessed acceptable measurement assessment. For the result of testing the PWB differences, the study showed that psychological well-being differed with personal income, living circle, and distance. The hikers who lived closer to the mountains perceived higher PWB. In contrast, hikers with lowest income perceived lower PWB.  The findings have implications for recreation management. For instance, this study found that living circle and distance are useful factors to predict PWB. Therefore, managers were suggested to provide more mountain trails information and build more mountain trails closer to hikers’ living circle so as to enhance hikers’ PWB. The finding from the income analysis, on the other hand, raises the social equity issue among hikers. Discussion and suggestions for future research are also provided.
Maya Azzi, Brenda Campbell, Robert Hobbins, Kari Roberg, and Gyan Nyaupane

Maya Azzi, Brenda Campbell, Robert Hobbins, Kari Roberg, and Gyan Nyaupane

USA

TITLE : Understanding Stargazers’ Motivations through the Travel Career Pattern Approach AUTHORS : Maya Azzi, Brenda Campbell, Robert Hobbins, Kari Roberg, and Gyan Nyaupane AFFILIATION : Arizona State University, United States of America  Abstract The literature on night sky recreation has focused primarily on describing the visitors, quality of the experience, and types of programs. There has yet to be research which attempts to understand the underlying motivations for stargazing in parks which is imperative for park management to understand the motivations of this growing segment of tourism. This study utilizes the Travel Career Pattern (TCP) approach developed by Pierce and Lee (2005) for understanding motivation in a tourism context and in theory, to explain the underlying motivations for stargazing tourists. The purpose of this study is to test the ability of the TCP to explain stargazer’s motivations in Arizona State Parks.  This study was conducted in Arizona at five different State Park sites: Red Rock State Park, Slide Rock State Park, Boyce Thompson State Park, Tonto Natural Bridge State Park and Lost Dutchman State Park. Arizona is known for its pristine dark skies and the Arizona State Park (ASP) system is home to some of the finest, with several parks certified International Dark Sky Parks (IDSPs). Many parks within ASP provide astronomy interpretive programs to park visitors as a means of exemplifying the pristine night sky as a unique cultural and natural resource. Three hundred ASP visitors were surveyed using an instrument to collect input on the stargazer motivations to determine if (1) the TCP explains the relationship between Arizona State Park visitors and motivations behind stargazing, (2) how ASP visitors are distributed on the Travel Career Pattern (TCP), and (3) how does the travel experience level of AZ State Parks visitors influence participation in stargazing?  The results of the study will contribute to the scant literature on stargazer’s motivations so that park managers can better plan for meeting the needs of this growing recreation group.   * Authors names are in alphabetical order and everyone will present.
Dr A J Veal

Dr A J Veal

Australia

TITLE : Leisure and Human Rights AUTHOR : Prof A J Veal AFFILIATION : University of Technology Sydney  ABSTRACT In 1948, in the aftermath of the Second World War, the newly formed United Nations endorsed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which includes three leisure-related rights: the right to travel (Article 13), the right to free time (Article 24) and the right to cultural participation (Article 27). Denial of such rights is widespread, for example when excessively long working hours are required to gain a living and when access to facilities and services is denied on grounds of gender, race or disability. Furthermore, other human rights are often infringed in leisure contexts, such as denial freedom of expression in the arts through censorship and exploitation of young people in some parts of the sports and tourism industries. Such issues, and the part human rights ideas might play in leisure research and policy generally,  have, however, been largely ignored in leisure studies and practice. The proposed symposium will: explore the reasons for this neglect; examine the nature of the leisure rights mentioned in the Universal Declaration; assess the contribution to the debate made other declarations, such as the World Leisure Organization’s Charter for Leisure and a number of declarations on sport, tourism and play; and consider the scope and potential for leisure research and policy development informed by the concept of human rights. The General Assembly of the UN, concerned as it was at the time with such urgent matters as the right to life, the rule of law and freedom from torture, nevertheless saw fit to assert the human right to leisure. A certain obligation therefore falls on those of us responsible for leisure education, research and service provision to at least examine the extent to which these rights are relevant to the field and the extent to which other rights are upheld or violated through leisure practices. This might make a modest contribution to the defence of the principle of ‘universal, indivisible and interdependent and interrelated’ human rights (World Conference on Human Rights, 1993).
Mr Tshifhiwa Mamaila

Mr Tshifhiwa Mamaila

South Africa

TITLE : Alignment of EAP with Business Strategy. AUTHOR :     Mr Tshifhiwa Mamaila                                         Biography : Tshifhiwa Mamaila is the MD / Owner of Your Purpose Consultancy, who completed his Masters degree in Social development in 2005 and his BA (Honours) degree in Social Work in 1996. He worked for different sectors in South Africa and has been in the EAP field for 16 years. Standards Committee of EAPA-SA (2010:1) revised the definition of EAP as the work organisation’s resource, based on core technologies or functions, to enhance employee and workplace effectiveness through the prevention, identification and resolution of personal and productivity issues. Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) is a fairly new concept in South Africa and even newer in the rest of Africa. There is some ground work that still needs to be done to assert EAP as a critical programme in the workplace to address employees’ personal and work-related challenges and to contribute significantly to business strategies. Abstract   There are currently no legislations on EAP in South Africa or anywhere in the world regulating the EAP profession. Most businesses have since realised the role that EAP plays in the workplace and most businesses have policies that define EAP and its benefit to employees and the organisation. Few of these businesses have an EAP strategy even when most of them have policies which unfortunately are not aligned to business strategies. This lack of alignment does pose serious concerns for the profession, the sustainability of EAP and the role it plays in improving employees’ job performance, productivity and more significantly contributing towards organisation’s profit margins. Overman (2009) in her introduction stated that when budget needed to be cut, EAP initiatives were often the first to go. It is therefore critical to align EAP to business’ vision, mission, goals and objectives to avoid these budget cuts. According to (Strategic Alignment Inc.) business alignment is linking and configuring the strategic elements, key organization systems, processes and structure in such a way that their implementation achieves the organization’s shared vision and results beyond expectations. Leisure and Wellness: “One of the ways towards greater profitability and financial success is found in embracing the stewardship of your human capital” (Attridge & Maiden, 2005) Benefits of EAP to individual employees focuses on the Mind (Psychologically) – Body (Physically) – Spirit (Spiritually).  Benefits of EAP on the organization are amongst others – Increased performance, productivity and organizational performance; team work; cohesion; focus; morale; Decreased absenteeism and presentism; Staff Turnover, Medical costs, Accidents and injuries on duty. The Employee Assistance Programme encompasses sport and recreation as part of its workplace activities in promoting a healthy lifestyle and the physical health of employees. Sport and recreation is part of most organizations’ workplace policies and has proven to improve employees’ ill-heath and fitness.
Prof Richard Makopondo

Prof Richard Makopondo

Kneya

TITLE : Obama Kogelo Community Cultural Festival: Bungled Opportunities AUTHOR : Prof Richard Ogola Bele Makopondo                AFFILIATION : BIOGRAPHY : Professor Makopondo holds a PhD in Leisure Studies, an MA in Recreation and Leisure Studies (Tourism Management), and a BSc. in Hospitality Management. His research interests include collaboration and partnerships; leisure, recreation and tourism and transformation; sustainability in hospitality, outdoor recreation and tourism; ICT in hospitality, tourism and higher education.   ABSTRACT Globally, festivals have been recognized as an expressive way to celebrate glorious heritage, culture and traditions (http://www.hattours.com). Festivals have been defined as social gatherings for purposes of celebration or thanksgiving (Waterman, 1998); arts events, community celebrations, or political and commercial events designed to promote a particular idea or specific products (Richards, 2007); or celebrations of something the local community wishes to share and which involves the public as participant in the experience (South Australian Tourism Commission, 1997, p.2).  Increasingly, festivals and special events are promoted as viable tools for socioeconomic development, intercultural and international understanding. Following the historic election of Senator Barak Obama, the son of a first generation black immigrant from Kenya as the first African American President of the United States of America, the clan of his father decided to organize an inaugural festival in commemoration. It was intended that this would be an annual event. Unfortunately the Obama Kogelo Community Cultural Festival has not survived beyond the third year. This study applied inter-organizational collaboration, partnership and stakeholder theories to investigate the process through which the festival was organized, the keys to its success during the first and second year, as well as the opportunities presented to develop and promote the festival and the village as a destination within the Western Kenya tourism circuit. The study adopted grounded theory principles including in- depth personal interviews and document textual analysis techniques to systematically gather and analyze the data (Shaw and Trussell, 2009). Using a deductive approach, the data were analyzed qualitatively using the objectives of the study as the basis for searching and coding emergent patterns, and to develop broad themes. The results indicate that the festival was initiated and organized through a collaborative approach involving the national government, international agencies, the county government, Kogelo Community leaders, Obama family, non-governmental organizations and private sector sponsors. Seven key factors contributed to the success of the cultural festival in the first two years. However, the festival was also marred with major challenges and issues that resulted in its failure in the third year. These included lack of an official festival management organization with a clear vision, cultural beliefs and intra-clan squabbles, struggle over control of funds, poor management and lack of accountability, and the lack of leadership and support from the county government. Based on these findings, the study recommends strategies to improve collaboration, revitalize and enhance the prospects of developing a more successful cultural festival in the future.
Ms Yvonne Klerks

Ms Yvonne Klerks

Netherlands

TITLE : World Leisure Centers of Excellence – graduate programs in the field of leisure AUTHOR : Ms Yvonne Klerks AFFILIATION : NHTV Breda University, Netherlands  Biography : Yvonne Klerks holds a MSc in business economics and marketing and studied at Tilburg University and University of Bern. She started lecturing at NHTV Academy for Leisure, the Netherlands in 2005. NHTV Academy for Leisure is the largest university in the world for applied and academic programs in leisure studies. With her background in business economics and marketing her main focus areas are entrepreneurship, operational management, productivity and marketing. She has been involved in research about productivity and project development in the tourism and leisure industry in The Netherlands. Besides being a lecturer Yvonne is also International Coordinator of the Academy for Leisure. In this position she has contact with universities and organizations in the tourism and leisure industry worldwide and has initiated many different international projects. For NHTV Academy for Leisure she was the driving force behind the election of the MSc Leisure Studies as the third World Leisure Center of Excellence, accredited by the World Leisure Organization in September 2012. Since 2014 she is Board Member of the World Leisure Organization. Within the WLO Board she is Chair of the Educational Services Committee and involved in the cooperation between the World Leisure Centers of Excellence.   ABSTRACT   This session is an introduction of the concept of World Leisure Centers of Excellence, acknowledged by the World Leisure Organization. In this session we give an insight into the World Leisure Centers of Excellence, which are graduate programs in the field of leisure connected to the goals and themes of the World Leisure Organization; –              Who are the current World Leisure Centers of Excellence? –              Main goals and activities of the World Leisure Centers of Excellence –              How to become a World Leisure Center of Excellence and what are the benefits?
Durban Green Corridor

Durban Green Corridor

South Africa

TITLE : Tourism and Leisure as a tool for community upliftment: A Case Study of Inanda  Panel Discussion  PANEL : Mr Duncan Pritchard (Marketing and product development – Durban Green Corridors) Mr Futhi Sibiya (Chair – Free In Inanda Tourism Route and product owner – Ezwini Lodge) Ms Susan Dlamini (Youth Development Program Manager – Durban Green Corridors) Ms Zanele Gwala (Tourist Guide, Free In Inanda Tourism Route)   One of the main objectives of the eThekwini Municipality’s investment in the Woza eNanda Heritage Route, which links various sites of cultural and historical significance in the Inanda area north of Durban, was the socio-economic uplift of this marginalized peri-urban community through tourism. However, more than five years after the official launch, visitor numbers remain low and Local Economic Development below expectations. In this context, several projects have been initiated to facilitate more contact between visitors and local people; more spending opportunities for tourists; support for micro-entrepreneurs and environmental improvements that are meant to both attract visitors and benefit the community through an enhancement of their quality of life and provision of recreational options. The paper discusses some of these initiatives, notably The Free In Inanda Tourism Route project, the Go!Durban Cycling Academy and the youth garden concept developed by the Durban Green Corridors, a socio-economic and environmental development programme of eThekwini Municipality and other partners.  These projects are inspired by current discourses and prevailing policy objectives around socio-economic development, responsible tourism, sustainable environmental management and community participation and youth empowerment.
Prof Ricardo Uvinha

Prof Ricardo Uvinha

Brazil

TITLE : Olympic Games In Rio 2016  And Its Relations With Leisure And Sports In Brazil AUTHOR : Prof Ricardo Ricci Uvinha CO-AUTHOR : Rosangela Martins de Araujo AFFILIATION : University of Sao Paulo, Brazil   ABSTRACT   Brazil has successfully secured a number of global sport events (World Cup 2014 and Olympic/Paralympic Games 2016) as a means of promoting the key goals of economic and social development. In the scope of events of large-scale production and media and public impact – with an emphasis on sports for all, the city of Rio de Janeiro has experienced several activities of that importance since 2007. In the Pan American Games in Rio2007, the Federal Government prepared and adopted the concept of social legacy as means for various public projects in progress at the time, making a commitment that those initiatives constituted the first move towards social change in the city from conducting sporting events. The great challenge of the 2016 Games in Rio can be reflected by its numbers: more than 200 nations, 10,500 Olympic athletes, 4,500 Paralympic athletes, 28 Olympic sports, 22 Paralympic sports, more than 100 thousand people directly involved in the organization of the Games, more than 30 thousand media professionals and about 100 thousand volunteers. Brazil has developed legacy plans aiming to enhance outcomes relating to quality of life –promoting civil society and alleviating poverty, reducing violence and crime, creating economic opportunity, safe spaces and promoting public health. In the context of the FIFA World Cup, legacy goals for social and economic development have targeted change across interrelated areas – energy, transportation, infrastructure, hospitality system, safety, urban planning and support services (health, retail, tourism). There are also initiatives coordinated by different Brazilian Ministries in the search for sports and physical activities that can address the demands of Brazilian society and the government’s aim to stimulate intersectoral action. Events on a global scale, such as the Olympics and Soccer World Cup, can stimulate new sport and physical activity policies and leisure programs. Several local representative entities, like sub-town hall, reference centres, district associations, labour unions, state parks administration, are seeking led policy development. Therefore, as part of the Olympic legacy, Rio 2016 Olympic Games states a unique opportunity to improve the awareness of the benefits of leisure, physical activity and sports.